Evaluate the contributions, strengths and weaknesses of the following three major schools of thought in management and organizational theories:
Classical management theory:古典管理理论
The classical management theory is a school of thought which management theorists delved into how to find the best possible way for employees to perform their duties.
Current management and organizational structure can provide many of its roots in the classical management theory. One of the main advantages of the classical management theory was a methodology for how management should work remember. Management principles can be seen as a basis for the current management behavior today, such as use as a power of authority and responsibility. Coined in this period
In addition, another advantage of the classical management theory is the focus on the division of labor. By dividing labor tasks would be faster and more efficiently, thereby increasing productivity. Division of labor can be seen in many applications today, ranging from fast food restaurants, big production. In addition, the classical management theory also gave rise to an autocratic style of leadership, allowing employees to take. Direction and command of their managers
The main weakness of the classical management theory arose from its tough, rigid structure. One of the main principles of the classical management theory is to increase productivity and efficiency; however, achieving these goals often came at the expense of creativity and human relations. Oftentimes, employers and theorists would focus on scientific, almost mechanical ways of increasing productivity. For example, managers would use assembly line methods and project management theories that focused on efficient division of tasks.
The Humanistic Management Center advocates a paradigm shift away from economistic views on market activities in the direction of a humanistic attitude. To move from criticism of the status quo towards abundant discourse on alternatives we have developed a three stepped approach offering guidance and a broadcaster for reflection on managerial decisions as well as decision making routes. We understand humanistic management on the basis of three interrelated dimensions.
It’s a holistic theory, so it looks the entire whole person. For example most other theories reduce people to ‘components’, in order to treat disorders; the humanist theory would state that the answer lies from looking at the entire person.
Lack of empirical evidence, the self-help therapy involved can teach narcissistic tendencies. The disadvantage of the ‘humanist’ approach becomes all too evident at a ‘humanist’ funeral. There is absolutely no comfort in the words of the ‘so called’ service, and absolutely no hope to the relatives and friends of the dead person of the resurrection which Jesus proved and of life after death.
Contingency Theory: 权变理论
The contingency school of management can be summarized as an “it all depends” approach. The appropriate management actions and approaches depend on the situation. Managers with a contingency view use a flexible approach, draw on a variety of theories and experiences, and evaluate many options as they solve problems.
Fiedler’s model gives organizations a rapid method to identify a particular group of the best. Potential leaders the theory includes a least-loved colleague scale, which helps identifies the management of human relations orientation and task orientation of potential leaders. Leaders with a task orientation are best suited to groups in which they defined tasks with a high level of control and supervision. On the other hand, leaders can a relationship orientation to use to get the job done their interpersonal skills and can deal with complex problems when taking decisions.
Flexibility:This theory has been designed as a contingency model and is not intended to describe. All possible situations Because the model is to provide flexible enough to fit all kinds of groups leaders and group relationships. Only the results of example, the margin as a group has a leader with low human relations skills, Fiedler’s model still gives management the ability to make an effective group with clearly defined roles and increasing the capacity of the leader to rewards or provide information to punish their subordinates.
Prescriptive:This model provides managers create by adapting a number of variables. Instrument for effective groups According to Fiedler’s contingency model, there is not just one type of successful leadership style, but each type of leader can thrive in the right group sites. The model provides a number of factors may change management to improve efficiency. Group For example, according to Fiedler’s theory but an impersonal task oriented leader can be effective in a group while the group is highly structured and clearly defined roles.
Leader Position power: Position power is determined at the most basic level of rewards and punishments that the leader has officially at his or her disposal for either reward or punish members of the group based on performance. The more power the leader has, the more favorable the situation. 领导职位权力：职位权力是在最基本的奖励和惩罚级别上确定的，领导者可以根据绩效对团队成员进行奖励或惩罚。领导者的权力越大，形势就越有利。
Different Organizational Structures:不同的组织结构
Company Organizational Structure:公司组织结构
The sources of power, influence, and authority within present-day organizations, and explain their impact and effectiveness on organizational structure:
Sources are the full utilization of resources in the management. Managers very well how to make use of the person to use and in what area it is perfect. Managers know the second person to lead the charge.
Following the organization 遵循组织
Compare and contrast the traditional and the current outlook of the following:比较和对比以下方面的传统和当前前景
There are delegates going into the meeting and represent the company in the other meetings that are held throughout the world. The person who talks about the organization and the goals of the organization.
There is the participation of managers and other employees and the boss. But in some organizations, the boss only participates in decision making.
. 3) Decision-making:决策
The boss makes the decision after consultation with all the managers and other employees. Boss gives the right to take part in some cases, the manager decisions. Identify and examine the principles for vertical and horizontal coordination in relation to their past and current relevance to management effectiveness:
Determinants of Emergency Management Effectiveness 应急管理有效性的决定因素
There is a considerable amount of research conducted over the past 30 years that many conditions influence the effectiveness of Lemmas been. Identifies this research will be further described in the following pages, but can be summarized by the model in Figure 3-2. This figure indicates that LEMA effectiveness measured by such organizational outcomes as quality , timeliness and cost of the risk by the community – is the most direct consequence of the individual results and the schedule adopted and implemented changes . Results for the individual members of the LEMA and LEMC include job satisfaction, organizational commitment, individual effort and attendance, and organizational citizenship behavior. The planning process includes staffing / equipment, organizational structure, team development environment, situational analysis and strategic choice.
In turn, the planning process is determined by the level of community support officers, news media and the public. The planning process is also influenced by risk experience, as measured by direct experience with disasters and vicarious experiences that reveal. Potential impact of future disasters Hazard experience also shows an indirect effect on the planning, through the effects on community support. It is important to recognize that although the model as shown in Figure 3-2 static, that is to say, the arrows starts on the left and finishes on the right side of the figure – the actual process is dynamic, because success tends to be a self-amplifying process in which a produce increased levels of indirect experience with disaster demands (through emergency training, drills and exercises) , community support , better staff and organization , and more emergency planning resources . High degree of individual and organizational outcomes
Hazard Exposure / Community Vulnerability 危险暴露/社区易损性
Numerous studies have shown the level of community adjustment hazard is increased by the experience of disaster impact, especially catastrophic consequences. To the vulnerability of the community to hazards easier to remember and more likely to encourage. Frequent for action, recent and serious consequences In some cases, this leads to the development of a disaster subculture in which residents routine patterns of disaster behavior (Wenger, 1978) to determine. When disasters are rare, long removed in time, or have had minimal disruptive impacts, vulnerability threat likely to elicit little attention households, organizations, or the community as a whole. However, the exposure of the community can be made â€‹â€‹by indirect experience gained by reading or hearing about experiences of other communities ‘ with disaster. Salient to environmental hazards These can be obtained through newspaper articles or television accounts or, most powerfully, through first-person accounts – especially if they come from peers (Liddell, 1994a) . For example, a local fire chief is most likely to be affected by the accounts of their experiences other fire chiefs, a city manager is most likely to be affected by another city manager, and so on .
Hazard exposure can also be affected by salient cues such as the daily sight of the cooling towers of a nuclear power plant, the intricate maze of piping at a petrochemical plant, or the placards on railcars and trucks passing through town. Information from hazard and vulnerability analyses can also have an effect on the community, but this pallid statistical information is likely to have less of an effect than the vivid first-person accounts described above (Nesbit & Ross, 1980). As will be discussed in the next chapter, Risk Perception and Communication, the psychological impact of hazard/vulnerability analyses can be increased by linking data on hazard exposure to likely personal consequences.
Compare the relevance and application of the motivation theories to workplace behavior in present-day organizations.
Two content schools of thought:两个内容学派
1.)Physiological needs: The most basic level in the hierarchy, the physiological needs, generally corresponds to the unlearned primary needs discussed earlier. The needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex are some examples. According to the theory, once these basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.
2.)Safety needs: This second level of needs is roughly equivalent to the security need. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. The whole organism may become a safety-seeking mechanism.
Two process schools of thought:两个过程学派
1.)Esteem needs: The esteem level represents the higher needs of man. The need for power,自尊需求：自尊水平代表人的更高需求
Performance and the status can be considered as part of this level. Maslow carefully pointed out that the esteem level includes both self-respect and self-esteem of others.
. 2) The need for self-actualization: Maslow important contribution, he portrays this level as the peak of the lower, middle and higher human needs. People who update themselves become complacent and have already realized their potential. Self-Actualization is closely related to the self-concepts. In fact, self-actualization is the motivation of the perception of the reality of the individual self. Evaluate two managerial approaches to motivation below for their distinctive contributions to management in organizations.
. 1) Pay and performance at work:工资和工作表现
Managers prepare only the grids and paid to the employee. Managers keep a strict eye on the employees how they work and how they perform.
2) Quality of Work Life Programs:工作生活质量计划
Managers only environment friendly and have a look at how their employee’s standard of living. They only tell the job how to improve their work. Skills and communication skills examine the positive or negative implication of management style below in relation to management practice in organizations.
Boss takes the decision without consulting with the other employees and managers whether the decision is right or wrong.
Boss takes the decision with consulting with the other employees and managers whether the decision is right or wrong.
Examine the job design for Marketing Manager below and answer the following questions.
What are the motivational effects in terms of task characteristics and personal and work outcomes of the job design options?
As a job manager i will motivate the employees in order to achieve the goal and i will also consult the problems which are faced by the employees and how they can overcome it and what are the solutions.
What are the implications of the job design options for management?工作设计选项对管理层有何影响？
If a job manager, it is my duty to hire and fire staff, because if after boss I’m only looking after the company in the absence of the boss. Moreover, I should be the person in whose area he / she is a perfect fit. Evaluate the social influences on individual work effectiveness and motivation and their implications for group functioning and team work:
If the employees are faced with a family problem then it will obviously effect the performance of the employee’s work, and moreover it is my duty to motivate so that he can produce more results in the future worker and I have the solution for tell which is faced by him in the society. Problem 如果员工面临家庭问题，那么这显然会影响员工的工作表现。此外，我有责任激励员工，让他在未来的工作中产生更多的成果，我有办法告诉他在社会上面临的问题。
1. Describe the distinction between management and leadership roles.描述管理和领导角色之间的区别。
Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ie: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction.
Management controls or directs people / resources in a group according to principles or values â€‹â€‹that have already been established. 2. Explain the impact of management and leadership roles on organizational structure
Managers need to fulfill many roles in an organization and how they deal with different situations will depend on their styles of management. A leadership style is a general method of leadership used by a manager. 3. Compare two different leadership styles and identifies and contrasts attributes and skills required for each style evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in terms of their significance for effective leadership in organizations.
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