Business Essay格式范文-制药行业的畅销药。本文是一篇留学生Business Essay写作参考，主要内容是讲述制药行业的增长速度比现有的许多其他行业都快。上述行业生产的创新药物享有约20年的专利保护。在这篇essay中，作者将解释创新者和仿制药行业之间的区别，从而比较和分析有史以来收入最高的五种药物。此外，作者会比较他们在专利期内和专利期满后的销售情况。下面就一起来看一下这篇Essay格式范文的具体内容，学习并掌握Essay怎么写。
Analysis Of Top Five Blockbuster Drugs In The Pharmaceutical Industry 制药行业五大畅销药分析
The pharmaceutical industry is growing faster than many other industries in existence. Innovator drugs manufactured by the above industry enjoy a patent protection of around twenty years.
In my essay, I shall explain the difference between an innovator and generic pharmaceutical industries and thereby compare and analyze the five highest grossing drugs of all time. Further, I would compare their sale during their patent life and after the expiry of their patent life.
In this technology driven world, the awareness of various brands has become common knowledge. Majority of the people identify brands like Apple, Samsung, Honda, Toyota, Tata, Vodafone and Reliance and some even possess decent knowledge about them. The industry with most unpopular brands is the pharmaceutical industry.
This doesn’t change the fact that pharmaceutical industry is making huge profits. With the spread of epidemics and diseases, the pharmaceutical industry is blooming. Pharmaceutical drugs have a quite long patent life (around 20 years) than products of other industries. During the patent life of a certain drug, the respective company enjoys a monopoly. Awareness regarding pharmaceutical industry, their investment patterns, and their profit generation is of utmost importance.
Objectives of the Study 研究目标
To determine the difference between Generic and Innovator drugs.确定仿制药和创新药之间的区别。
Differentiate between drug, brand, and company.区分药品、品牌和公司。
To understand patent protection laws.了解专利保护法。
To analyze the profit made by five highest grossing drugs in the world.分析世界上收入最高的五种药物的利润。
To observe the sale patterns during patent life and post patent life.观察专利期和专利期后的销售模式。
To understand the role of FDA in regulating the pharmaceutical industry.了解美国食品药品监督管理局在监管制药行业中的作用。
Pharmaceutical Industry 制药工业
All the companies manufacturing medicines, injectable, inhalers, vaccines and core healthcare products come under the pharmaceutical industry.所有生产药品、注射剂、吸入器、疫苗和核心医疗保健产品的公司都属于制药行业。
Pharmaceutical Companies are broadly classified into two types.制药公司大致分为两类
Innovator Companies 创新型公司
Generic Companies 仿制药的公司
Innovator companies are those companies which do the tough job. They identify the disease, study the causing agent, develop a molecule, test the molecule, develop the drug, test it on animals, test it on humans, study the adverse effects, get the drug approved by FDA (Food and Drug Administration), manufacture it and finally sell it in the market.
The above process of developing a totally new drug requires an investment of 10 to 20 years of time and $1 billion to $10 billion of capital. Apart from the above labor, FDA takes more 2 to 5 years to approve the drug. In return, the company gets a patent protection on the above product for around 20 years, if applied.
The company enjoys a monopoly in the market as long as the patent of the product lasts. Of all the molecules developed, only 10% make to the market. The investment required in an innovator company is humongous.
Companies like Pfizer, Novartis, Amgen, AstraZeneca and Eli Lilly are Innovators.辉瑞、诺华、安进、阿斯利康和礼来等公司都是创新者。
Generic companies, on the other hand, play it safe. They don’t develop any molecule, instead, they develop the innovator’s drug at much lower cost. When the innovator drug’s patent expires, the generic companies flood the market with their drugs at a much lower price. Since generic companies don’t have a patent protection, they have to face competition from the other generic companies as well as the innovator itself.
Almost all Indian pharmaceutical companies are generic in nature.几乎所有的印度制药公司本质上都是仿制药的公司。
Companies like Sandoz, Ranbaxy, Cipla, and Teva are Generic.像Sandoz、Ranbaxy、Cipla和Teva这样的公司都是仿制药的公司。
There are 3 terms used while talking about pharmaceutical products are drug also known as a molecule or generic name, the brand name, and the company. I’ll differentiate between the 3 using the example of a common medicine called Crocin.
Drug/Molecule/Salt/Generic Name – It denotes the composition of the product, here medicine. Many medicines can have the same generic name but not the same brand name.
Brand/ Brand Name – It is the unique name given by the company to its product. No two brand name can be the same.
Company – It is the organization that manufactures the drug and sells it in the market.
Patent and Intellectual Property 专利和知识产权
A Patent is a commitment by the Government and WTO (World Trade Organization), ensuring the owner monopoly of a certain entity for a particular period of time. Any person or organization must take permission from the patent owner to reproduce a part or whole of his patented entity, failing which the patent owner holds the power to sue the certain individual or the organization in the court of law.
The number of patents issued in the pharmaceutical industry far exceeds the number of patents issued in any other industry. There are 2 types of patents.制药行业的专利数量远远超过任何其他行业的专利。专利有两种类型。
Design Patents 外观设计专利
Utility Patents 实用新型专利
In the pharmaceutical industry even the process can be patented calling it a process a patent. All countries which have signed the charter with WTO are obliged to respect the charter. There are 3 ways to sell the patented entity within its patent life.
Receive permission from the current patent owner.获得当前专利所有者的许可。
Purchase the patent rights from the owner.从所有者处购买专利权。
Bypass the patent, develop a different process to develop an entity from the one patented.绕过专利，开发不同于专利的实体开发过程。
Top 5 Highest Grossing Drugs 产量最高的前5种药物
Lipitor by Pfizer 辉瑞立普妥
Plavix by Sanofi and Bristol – Myers 赛诺菲和百时美的Plavix
Humira by AbbVie AbbVie的Humira
Seretide by GlaxoSmithKline 葛兰素史克Seretide
Enbrel by Amgen 安进Enbrel
Brand: Lipitor 品牌：立普妥
Drug: Atorvastatin 药物：阿托伐他汀
Company: Pfizer 公司：辉瑞
Lipitor was launched by Pfizer in 1997 and it has been the highest grossing drug of all time. It made sales of around $120 billion until its patent expired in 2011. Now Lipitor sales have declined due to facing competition by generic industries.
The above graph shows that Lipitor sales were at its peak between 2006 and 2009. After the expiry of the patent in 2011, its sales have considerably declined.
Lipitor was used to reduce cholesterol in the blood. Due to the birth of junk food in early 2000, the cholesterol level in the majority of the population increased, owing to high sales of Lipitor during that period.
Pfizer had a golden time during the patent tenure of Lipitor. Even today, Pfizer is the largest innovator company in the world.
Brand: Plavix 品牌：Plavix
Drug: Clopidogrel 药物：氯吡格雷
Company: Bristol – Myers & Sanofi 公司：百时美施贵宝和赛诺菲
The above graph depicts the annual sales of Plavix during its patent life. Plavix was launched in 1998 as a joint effort by Sanofi Aventis and Bristol Myers. Plavix patent will expire by 2016. It is the second bestselling drug in the world after Lipitor.
Plavix is used to prevent and avoid heart attacks in patients. Plavix has an all-time sale of $ 87 Billion.
Brand: Humira 品牌：Humira
Drug: Adalimumab 药物：阿达木单抗
Company: AbbVie 公司：AbbVie
Humira was launched by AbbVie in 2003. It is one of the most best-selling drugs of the 21st century. It was developed for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Its patent is still intact. The graph below denotes the sale of Humira.
From 2003, when Humira was launched, its sales have increased exponentially and it still has patent protection. If this trend continues, it might rival Lipitor.
Brand: Seretide 品牌：Seretide
Drug: Salmeterol and Fluticasone 药物：沙美特罗和氟替卡松
Company: GlaxoSmithKline 公司：葛兰素史克
Seretide was first launched in Europe in 1999. Seretide was sold along with an inhaler. It was developed to prevent people from dying from an asthma attack. The use an inhaler to absorb medicine was a revolutionary concept in the late 1990s.
Many generic alternatives of Seretide are available in the market today, due to the patent expiry of Seretide. Seretide was one of the highest grossing medicine of all time.
The graph below depicts sale patterns of Seretide through different years.下图描绘了Seretide在不同年份的销售模式。
Brand: Enbrel 品牌：Enbrel
Drug: Etanercept 药物：依那西普
Company: Amgen 公司：安进
The graph below depicts the sales pattern of Enbrel.下图描绘了Enbrel的销售模式。
Enbrel was launched in 2005 by Amgen. It was a bio pharmaceutical, only one of its kind. It was developed as a cure for rheumatoid arthritis and became one of the most bestselling bio drugs in the world. The Enbrel sale is on the rise.
Food and Drug Administration 美国食品药品监督管理局
Also known as FDA, it is a government body which is responsible for regulating the pharmaceutical industry. No company can sell a product as long as it is not approved by FDA.
FDA spends billions of dollars on testing and approving a drug. The entry barrier for pharmaceutical industries is quite high due to which only quality companies can survive.
FDA holds the right to make organization withdraw their product from the market. Even generic drugs need an FDA approval before they make to the market.
FDA discourages consumers to consume food supplements which are sold online, as selling a product online doesn’t require an FDA approval. FDA has the final word in the entire pharmaceutical industry.
It is clear that the sales of a certain product rise and reach a peak point during the tenure of its patent life. The sales of the products sharply decline after the expiry of the patent. In other words, the sales of a certain product during its patent life form a rough parabola.
The revenues earned by the brands in their patent life decrease in the following order.这些品牌在专利期内获得的收入按以下顺序减少。
Lipitor – $125 Billion 立普妥–1250亿美元
Plavix – $ 87 Billion Plavix–870亿美元
Humira – $ 11.8 Billion and Ongoing, Patent Intact Humira——118亿美元，正在进行中，专利完整
Seretide – $ 18 Billion Seretide–180亿美元
Enbrel – $ 8.7 Billion and Ongoing, Patent Intact Enbrel–87亿美元，正在进行中，专利完整
Having compared the highest grossing products of the pharmaceutical industry, it is now evident that although the investment in pharmaceutical industry is enormous, the return on investment is even great. Patent and Intellectual property laws play a huge part in regulating the pharmaceutical;
It is recommended that every country should sign the WTO charter and respect intellectual property laws as their own legal system. Many companies have started developing both innovator and generic drugs to survive the competition. With time as pathogens evolve, we’ll need stronger and better drugs to ensure the sustenance of the human race.
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