代写MBA essay范例-虚拟公司的商业道德分析。本文是一篇留学生MBA essay写作参考，本篇essay分析将首先简要介绍一家虚构的卫星成像公司国际卫星图像公司，如“战略管理和商业政策”案例3所述，以及ISI在商业道德中的作用。第二，essay将作为两种不同的情景进行，得出不同的结果。最后，将根据作者认为对公司最有利的结果提出建议。下面就一起来看一下这篇MBA essay代写范例。
This essay will first include a brief introduction of a fictitious satellite imaging company, International Satellite Images (ISI), described in Case 3 of “Strategic Management and Business Policy,” and the role ISI plays in business ethics. Secondly, an analysis will be given as two separate scenarios that derive alternative outcomes. Lastly, a recommendation will be given based on the outcome I believe would be most beneficial for company.
ISI is in the process of developing a new imaging satellite capable of clear images within one meter. 150 percent of funding must be secured by ISI to complete the project. It will take $200 million to launch and build the satellite. Bankruptcy will be filed by the company if ISI is unable to secure funding during the launch process. Industry competition includes four nations: United States, France, Russia and Israel. The U.S. has the lead in technology regarding satellite image quality. The U.S. based companies are Lockart, Global Sciences and ISI. At ISI, Jim Willis is the Vice President of marketing and sales and Fred Ballard is the company’s President.
ISI正在开发一种能够在一米内清晰成像的新型成像卫星。ISI必须确保150%的资金才能完成该项目。发射和建造这颗卫星需要2亿美元。如果ISI在启动过程中无法获得资金，该公司将申请破产。行业竞争包括四个国家：美国、法国、俄罗斯和以色列。美国在卫星图像质量技术方面处于领先地位。总部设在美国的公司有Lockart、Global Sciences和ISI。在ISI，Jim Willis是营销和销售副总裁，Fred Ballard是公司总裁。
The new technology that ISI is developing consists of a thermal stabilizer for the satellite’s camera that a subcontractor is creating. The subcontractor claims that they are delayed-pushing ISI’s launch date out another 12 to 18 months. ISI’s competitors claim to be within the 6 month window of ISI’s initial published launch date. Each of the U.S. based companies revised their launch dates at least once if not twice. By doing so it changes the terms of the contract and creates further international contract negotiations leading to possible termination of contract. After learning this information, Fred Ballard believes the his customers already expect delays and disregards Jim Willis’ input on the matter extending the launch date.
ISI正在开发的新技术包括一个分包商正在创建的卫星相机热稳定器。分包商声称，他们将ISI的发布日期再推迟12到18个月。ISI的竞争对手声称在ISI最初公布的发布日期的6个月窗口期内。每家美国公司都至少修改了一次发布日期，如果不是两次的话。通过这样做，它改变了合同条款，并创造了进一步的国际合同谈判，导致合同可能终止。在得知这些信息后，Fred Ballard认为他的客户已经预料到了延迟，并无视Jim Willis对延长发布日期的意见。
ISI became apprised of a Japanese company, named Higashi Trading Company (HTC), that has been in a 6 month negotiation with ISI regarding a $10 million per year contract. Willis believes that ISI’sÂ prior knowledge of the launch delay due to the thermal stabilizer and not the actual spacecraft could damage the relationship with HTC and lose their contract.
Because the satellite imagery industry is quickly growing, all participants have to keep their current clients to be able to take part. Companies in this industry also need venture capitalists to finance projects. The negotiations with HTC has created duress for Jim bringing him to the point of whether to act ethically or unethically-in favor of his company.
1. What are sources of the factors, which have created the ethical dilemma? There are several internal and external forces at work here.造成道德困境的因素来源是什么？这里有几种内部和外部的力量在起作用。
Internal forces include:内部力量包括
Jim Willis’ boss, Frank Ballard, has given Jim a specific instruction not to disclose the information. the company code of conduct does not permit the disclosure of company proprietary information without prior approval. the financial health of the company could be jeopardized. Jim Willis’ personal financial well being could be jeopardized.
External forces include:外部力量包括
industry practice is to publicize optimistic completion dates that are rarely met.行业惯例是公布乐观的完工日期，而这些日期很少实现。
the financial industry that has profitability expectations which may be impossible to meet if realistic information is provided.如果提供了现实的信息，可能无法满足盈利预期的金融业。
2. Is it ever appropriate to withhold negative information from the client?向客户隐瞒负面信息是否合适？
The answer is, it depends. Potential problems with production, delivery, and maintenance arise all the time. Most of these problems are solved without any customer impact. It is neither productive, nor reasonable to bring all of these problems to the customer’s attention. However, when a known problem has the likelihood of having a severe negative effect on a customer, it is the company’s responsibility to disclose this information. Numerous illustrations in the consumer arena are testaments to the effect of failure to disclose. Ford Pinto gas tanks and Firestone tires (Miller, 2000) had serious negative effects customer. Cases like Tylenol (Stevenson, 1986) suggest that early disclosure can actually improve customer perception and loyalty.
3. What should ISI do?ISI应该怎么做？
As the epilog illustrates, the customer was savvy enough to provide safe guards against industry practice and the deal did not go through until much later than planned. While there is no information as to whether or not the same ordering delay would have happened if Jim Willis had disclosed the information in advance of the negotiations, it was clear that the level of trust between the parties was very low since the Japanese insisted upon completion guarantees.
Therefore, it can be surmised that in this case, disclosure could have afforded the two parties the opportunity to work more closely together and in the end helped ISI to close the contract earlier, on better terms. Therefore, in this case, ISI should either have disclosed the negative information or delayed negotiations.
In the actual case, the date was not initially disclosed to the customer. However, the customer insisted that if the launch date was missed, the customer had the right to renegotiate the terms of the contract or void it all together. Further, the customer insisted that any ISI software purchased by the customer would be fully refundable if the satellite did not launch within six months of the launch date. Under these circumstances, ISI was forced to disclose that the launch date was in jeopardy. At that point, contract negotiations were suspended for more than a year. Other potential contracts were also put on hold. Although contracts were finally negotiated, it was not until after ISI went through bankruptcy and reorganization. Neither Jim Willis nor Fred Ballard was with ISI when the satellite finally launched. The actual launch took place five years after the original launch date. As Fred Ballard had predicted, all competitor launch dates were similarly delayed.
In 2004, the US government announced its intention to purchase commercial satellite imagery worth over $500,000,000. The contract would fund the production and launch of a new spacecraft. Imagery resolution would be less than .5 meters. The leading contender for the contact entered one-on-one negotiations with the US government. Negotiations broke off after the two sides failed to iron out financial terms and negotiate a “realistic” launch date. The satellite company had provided a launch date that they believed was realistic but which fell beyond the schedule the government agency requested. Industry experts knew the government agency’s launch date request was not realistic.
ISI had just emerged from bankruptcy protection and had launched its first high-resolution satellite (which had sensor problems and was unable to deliver planned image quality). Even though ISI was the weakest contender for the contract, they were awarded the contract. They were awarded the contract primarily because they agreed “comply” to the government spy agencies required launch date.
The question of ethics remains. One company truthful in its bid for the contract disclosed that it could not make the required launch date – they lost the contract. The other company agreed to the launch date requested in the contract even though it is extremely unlikely that they would be able to build and launch the satellite on time, and won the contract.
Less than six months after the contract award the winning company purchased the other company. ISI’s satellite is believed to be behind schedule.
Lying will breach their mutual trust, and also might increase risk of their goals during this contract i.e. hurried accomplishments.
If ISI wanted profits over ethics, 20 years ago, that might have worked due to limited market competition. Nowadays, ISI has to consider that even though short term profits are gained, long term relationships also build even more profits. With a lie, this will destroy those opportunities for long term commitments and result in loss of potential future capital. ISI needs to focus long term, especially with their industry standards.
Disclose the fact mentioning delay time, approaching a revised proposal with possible time duration and being more focused on the thermal stabilizer and other technical factors attained by subcontractors.
(Cox, 2008)Cox. (2008, June 17). Case study: Misleading satellite data contract. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
(Ward, 2010) Ward, L. (2010, August 25). The Evolution Of The U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy. (11).
(Wheelen, 2015) Wheelen, T. (2015). Strategic Management and Business Policy (14th ed.). Pearson.
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