3.1 Research philosophy, approach and sample
This chapter first of all introduces the epistemology, methodology and research tools related to this research from the angle of research philosophy. Then, according to the research philosophy and the research objectives of this study, it puts forward the research hypothesis and designs the questionnaire. Finally it presents the questionnaire survey method and the basic situation of the samples.
3.2 Overview of research philosophy
Epistemology is a philosophical branch that explores the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. Epistemological theory is divided into two schools, namely the transcendental and the posterior. Transcendental theory implies knowledge derived only by reasoning (Kumar, 2014). Posterior theory refers to that acquisition and confirmation of knowledge requires experience. Posterior theory is supported in this study (Bonitsis and Brown, 1997). Therefore, this study uses the research philosophy of positivism, Positivism believes that knowledge is on the basis of natural phenomena, their properties and relations (Kumar, 2014). Information sourced from sensory experience and interpreted through reason and logic constitutes the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge. Empirical research refers to the research carried out by researchers through collecting observation data in person to put forward theoretical hypothesis or test theoretical hypothesis (Creswell, 2003). Based on the definition of positivist study, this study first collected research related to wine consumption and took deductive research strategy, based on previous research results to put forward the research hypothesis of this study, and it was through collecting a large amount of data and analysis to confirm or overturn the research hypothesis.
Methodology refers to ways, methods that people use to observe things and deal with problems. Objectivism and structuralism are two important types of methodology. In general, worldview influences and determines types of methodology. For example, epistemology of positivism usually corresponds to methodology of objectivism. Therefore, the methodology of this study is objectivism. Methodology of objectivism believes that knowledge is the truth existing objectively, truth is manifested through natural phenomena and social phenomena, and the study of these phenomena can understand the objective reality (Saunders and Thornhill, 2007). Therefore, the research method of this study is quantitative research.
Quantitative research refers to scientific research determining the amount of certain aspects of things, it uses quantity to express problems and phenomena, it is research methods and processes which is through a large number of quantitative data analysis to get significance (Creswell, 2003). Considering from the research aim of this study, it is by collecting data of a large number of consumers’ consumption of wine, through the analysis of the data to understand the common characteristics of their consumption behavior, so the adoption of quantitative study is appropriate.#p#分页标题#e#
3.3 Questionnaire design
Quantitative research in this study is mainly through questionnaires to collect data and information. It is mainly through LimeSurvey software to design and distribute questionnaires, the questionnaires will be distributed to consumers of wine, the questionnaires will be expected to issue for about 150 copies. Content of the questionnaire is divided into three parts. It first introduces the purpose, significance of the questionnaire and method to fill with the questionnaire, it promises to the respondents that the results of the survey will not revealed personal information for commercial uses. Then the questionnaire investigates the characteristics of the respondents’ consumption behaviour of wine in order to verify or reverse the hypotheses. The third part of the questionnaire is to investigate the background information of the respondents, including their ages, genders, income, and so on. The specific contents of the questionnaire are listed in Appendix 1.
Appendix 1 Questionnaire
We are implementing a study on wine consumption. Therefore, we will greatly appreciate if you can finish the following questionnaire which may take you about 10 minutes.
Your participations subject to privacy policies and will be handled anonymously. We sincerely thank you for your collaboration!
Part I In the following questions, five degrees are used to reflect your answers to each question, please tick the option that can reflect your true opinion most.
1. HYPOTHESIS Variables Questions for questionnaire
High level of wine consumption is not related to perceived health risks
High level of wine consumption
Perceived health risks
Correlation coefficient Do you think that the wine consumption has a negative impact of your health?
Answer: scale from 1 to 5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree)
High level of wine consumption is related to perceived health risks
2. HYPOTHESIS Variables Questions for questionnaire
There is no difference between male and female propensity to consume wine.#p#分页标题#e#
Propensity to consume wine
Male/ Female? Answer: check one
How often do you drink wine?
How much wine do you drink each time?
Different genders have has big different on wine consumption
3. HYPOTHESIS Variables Questions for questionnaire
Person’s subjective knowledge of wine has no impact on their consumption habits
Correlation coefficient Do you consider yourself to have a extensive knowledge of wine?
To what extent do you think getting more knowledge about wine can help you to develop your habit of drinking wine?
H1 Person’s subjective knowledge of wine has impact on their consumption habits
Part II General Questions:
1. Your age?
2. Your gender?
3. Have you drunken wine?
4. How often do you drink wine?
5. What about your monthly income?
6. What is your educational background?
Thank you for your cooperation!