Along with Chinese economy steady development, Living standard enhancement, each kind of consumption behavior is more and more active. The consumer also starts more and more to pay attention to the consumption quality, Reference to the 《Analysis and Forecast on China’s Social Development(2005)》, the living standards of both urban and rural residents are continuously upgrading, The customer are now paying more attention one the product Brand when they are shopping. Obviously, it is including the price and the products quality.
随着中国经济的稳步发展，生活水平的提高，各种消费行为也越来越活跃。消费者也开始越来越多地注重消费质量，参照“分析与预测中国的社会发展（ 2005） ” ，城乡居民生活水平不断提升，客户现在比较注意的一个产品品牌，当他们购物。很显然，它是包括价格和产品质量。服务企业像其他组织已经意识到以客户为导向的理念的重要意义，并转向质量管理方法来帮助管理他们的业务。
Service firms like the other organizations are realizing the significance of customer-orientated philosophies and are turning to quality management approaches to help managing their businesses. This paper has started with the concept of service quality and has demonstrated the model of service quality gaps. SERVQUAL as an effective approach has been studied and its role in the analysis of the difference between customer expectations and perceptions has been highlighted with support of different institution. Outcomes of the study outline the fact that although SERQUAL could close one of the important service quality gaps associated with external customer services, it could be extended to close other major gaps and therefore, it could be developed in order to be applied for internal customers, i.e. employees and service providers.
In electrical appliances fields, within these years have raised and buy and joint venture upsurge, each one want to become the hot star in the market. Especially in 2001, the Greencool merger and acquisition the Kelon and Meilin, it jumped to one of the biggest cooling company in Asia. But in 2005, it become the Hisense purchased object because of the China's Securities Regulatory Commission doubted the cash flow problem. Almost the same time, the TCL also merged the Rowa which was prodded as the dark horse in the market.
From January 1, 2006, the National Development Reform Committee promulgated the "Domestic electric appliances Service With honest price tag displayed Stipulation", It want to make a standard to the charge chaotic electrical appliances service profession.
When the main competitors want to capture more market share and try to relocates the company strategy, the closely linked the electrical appliances service market also undercurrent surges. More and more illegal service actions were reported by the media, but the illegal service action shows that we have not the relevant restraint law in this profession, this kind of superficiality behavior directly cause the consumer to its product purchase behavior reduction. On the other side, the Hisense departure its service department and setup as a third part service company called Savor, Haier continues merge his service contract partner, TCL proposed his service team as Happy Express Service, Sony announced to invests 20million US dollars reform its service, the dealer chain giant Suning also invests the large amount of money to plan its after sales and creates the “the first class cabin service” and to start to capture the service work from the producer. Above all, it looks the Chinese service market will face a new milestone.
Which kind of situation is the China’s home appliance service industry located? How can BSH to improve the service level in current situation? Does BSH need to make any organization changed to meet the requirement?
1.1 Research background
People thought generally there is an intrinsic difference between the commodity and the service, and especially regarding to the service industry and the producer who look the service as the core provision, the difference will cause the unique, at least the different management challenge.
商品 服务 相应的含义
有形 无形 服务不可储存
标准化 异质性 服务的提供与顾客的满意取决于员工的行动
可储存 易逝性 服务的供应和需求难以同步进行
Resource from: Journal of Marketing 49, Fall 1985, A.Parasuraman,Valarie A.Zeithaml,and Leonard Berry, “ A conceptual Mode of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research”pp.41-50
At present, various factories provide product in similar function, but the service standard they provide is different. Under the situation of the consumer's rational consumption behavior is not maturity, Majority serves the sensation aspect influence to the consumer to be decided by the advertisement propaganda, and this also is the main method which the factories used for the sales promotion. The home appliance service professions depend up own strategic plan to set up the different service brand become the main question.#p#分页标题#e#
1.2 Research Objectives
In usual service profession of electrical appliances production and sales organizations, the general service organization must solve the conflict between sales volume growth and the satisfaction drop for the service. Normally this kind of problem is caused by the insufficient service resources supply ability.
At present, the BSH home appliances product passes through many years market sale precipitation; he has owned more and more customers, especially in developed city as Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou and so on, the customer’s purchase behavior are high centralism during the holidays. It caused the service demand turned about two times than before in short terms, but the company can not offer a the service resource such as hotline agents and the service technician timely and effectively. Therefore the phone lines abandon rate increase rapidly and the technician’s service level becomes very low. The complaint quantity about the service also has an obviously increased.
Therefore how to plan and relocate the service recourses and how to improve the service quality and improve the customer satisfaction with the limited resource is the research objectives of this thesis.
1.3 Research Problem
From the above section, this thesis will combine with the BSH real situation, to present more and higher service quantity, especially to make summarize of the prominent peak telephone service bottleneck problem during the holidays.
So this thesis is aiming to study how to improve the customer satisfaction by the reform the service organizes structure and relocates the resource of the BSH customer service department.
1.4 Research Methodologies
This thesis based on to BSH present situation with external analysis and understanding, Attempts through the data mining method to analysis the customer satisfaction index within several years, we can find some improvement measurements. Furthermore, I will arrive at an appropriate conclusion about the strategic adjustments for the company. Finally, I still focusing on the case of BSH, I will combine the various analyses in the thesis to put forward an overall recommendation as for the improvement of the customer satisfaction index.
Though the discussions of Excellent Customer Service are very excited in economics and management profession, but most of those discussions are limited in macro theories and some concept training. The specific problem of measurement details is seldom concerned. We can refer to few theoretical books. In addition, the domestic electrical appliances profession customer service innovation reform is a question in the certain historical stage. We can refer to little experience and theory in the world. In the developed country most of the installation service is done by the customer. These two difficulties determine the resources of the research mainly from the author’s limited knowledge, experience, practice and thought to a large extent.#p#分页标题#e#
1.6 Research Structure
Chapter 2. Theoretical Basis for the Analysis of Service Quality
This thesis will based on the Gaps Model of Service Quality and the SERVQUAL Methodology, and compare with service organization of BSH, then we can discover the insufficiency exited in the our service organization. When prominent improvement plan, we use the Erlang method as a basic module to try set up a new call center.
2.1 Gaps Model of Service Quality
The Gap Analysis Model, summarized in Figure 1, identifies six possible causes, or “gaps,” that may lead to customer dissatisfaction with service. A seventh gap, affected by the six identified gaps, is the service-quality shortfall perceived by customers - the difference between what the customer expects and perceptions of what is actually delivered. As Gaps 1 through 6 widen or close so does Gap 7. The authors’ conceptual model of service quality follows: “The key to delivering high quality service is to continually monitor customer perceptions of service quality, identify causes of service quality shortfalls, and take appropriate action to improve the quality of service (close the service gaps).” What makes managing customer service different, as a marketing problem, from managing the standard elements of the marketing mix (product, price, promotions, and place) is that customer service is typically delivered by front-line employee: technical engineer. Personnel policies, thus, have immediate marketing implications. We also should take this into consideration by treating employees as “internal customers.” According to this philosophy, management must “sell” their internal customers on the company and its policies in order to induce front-line employees to deliver the desired levels of customer service. Standard personnel policies that can facilitate customer service and sell the “internal customers” include
(a) employee screening and selection,
(c) setting suitable reporting relationships,
(d) goals and reward systems,
(e) internal communications,
and (f) generally creating a “service” culture.
The Gap Analysis Model goes a step beyond simply re-examining each of the standard personnel policies in light of the desired customer service. The model provides specific criteria concerning personnel and management policies that complete the linkage between customer expectations and perceived service delivery. In addition, the model provides a checklist of where breaks in the chain can occur; using this checklist can provide a useful audit of service quality. We elaborate below on the first four gaps in the model.
Gap 1. Not Knowing What Customers Expect
This is the first and possibly most critical step in delivering quality service. Organizations who suspect they may be suffering from this gap should ask one simple question: do we know what our customers expect from us with respect to service? Based on interviews, the authors found that executives’ perceptions of superior quality service are largely congruent with customers’ expectations. However, some significant discrepancies did often arise. First, although executives may have a broad understanding of customers’ perceptions of superior quality service, they may not know about certain service features that are critical to meeting customers’ desires. Second, some executives may not know the levels of performance customers expect.#p#分页标题#e#
Gap 1 may stem from any combination of the following factors:
Lack of marketing research orientation within the organization. This occurs when managers fail to make an effort to understand customers’ needs either through lack of formal or informal information gathering activities. Formal market research activities may help managers focus on gathering data about service quality issues and from that data, gain an understanding of which features are most important to customers, which levels of these features customers expect, and what customers think the company can - and should - do when service delivery problems occur.
Inadequate use of research findings. This is a common problem because managers may be too busy with day-to-day operations to interpret and/or utilize the data in a meaningful way.
Infrequent management interaction with customers. This problem can be addressed by having managers participate in the most basic of marketing research activities: mingling with customers to learn what they are really thinking. One formal mechanism to address this is to rotate managers periodically through the front-line.
Inadequate upward communication. Gaps in service also occur when top management fails to seek, stimulate and facilitate the flow of information from employees at lower levels. These employees are often the most valuable source of real and relevant information about customer service. Related to this, Gap 1 may also occur when too many levels separate top managers, who make critical decisions, from those responsible for dealing with and serving customers.
Gap 2. The Wrong Service-Quality Standards
Gap 2 arises when there is a discrepancy between what managers perceive that customers expect and the actual standards that they (the managers) set for service delivery. This gap may occur when management is aware of customers’ expectations but may not be willing or able to put systems in place that meet or exceed those expectations. For example, putting systems in place may require changes in fundamental organizational work processes, acquiring expensive new technology, or refocusing organizational attitudes to understand service from the customer’s point of view.
The first factor responsible for this gap is an inadequate commitment to service quality. Management of effective organizations must view service quality as a key strategic goal; the absence of an organizational commitment to service quality is a virtual guarantee of a wide Gap 2. Several key questions to ask when evaluating the extent of Gap 2 are as follows:
Are resources committed to departments to improve service quality?
Do internal programs exist for improving the quality of customer service?
Are managers who improve customer service quality more likely to be rewarded?
Does the company emphasize sales goals as much or more than it does customer service?
Are upper and middle managers committed to providing quality customer service?#p#分页标题#e#
The second factor responsible for this gap is a perception of infeasibility. To be committed to customer service, managers must believe that customer expectations can actually be met. Gap 2 can be closed when the following questions can be answered positively:
Does the company have the capabilities to meet customer requirements for service?
Can customer expectations be met without hindering financial performance?
Do existing operating systems enable customer expectations to be met?
Are resources and personnel available to deliver the service levels that customers demand?
Does management change policies and procedures to meet the needs of customers?
A third factor that can influence Gap 2 is task standardization. This gap can be closed when hard and soft technologies are used to standardize service tasks. When the answers to the following questions are negative, Gap 2 widens.
Is automation used to achieve consistency in customer service?
Are programs in place to improve operating procedures so that consistent service is provided?
A fourth relevant factor that can close Gap 2 is goal setting—the extent to which service quality standards are based on customers’ expectations rather than company standards. Formal processes to set the quality of service goals for employees must be put in place. The company must have clear goals for customer service and must measure its performance against these goals. As well, service-quality standards should be based on customers’ standards rather than company standards.
Gap 3. The Service-Performance Gap
Organizational policies and standards for service levels may be in place, but is front line staff following them? A very common gap in the service industry, Gap 3 is the difference between organizational service specifications and actual levels of service delivery. Organizations specializing in providing highly interactive, labor-intensive services in a number of locations are especially vulnerable to this gap because
(a) customer interactions are more frequent;
(b) opportunities for variation in service in these high-volume organizations are greater;
and (c) quality control (employee assessment) becomes complicated in organizations with multiple layers.
Gap 3 occurs when employees are unable or unwilling to perform to the level of service desired by management. Seven key factors contribute to this unwillingness/inability.
1. Role Ambiguity. This occurs when employees do not have the information or training to perform their jobs adequately. Resulting in an uncertainty about what managers expect, or how to provide the level of service necessary to satisfy customers.
2. Role Conflict. This is caused when employees perceive that they cannot satisfy the demands of all the customer groups (internal and external) that they serve. This may arise under the following conditions:
Differing expectations of service levels between managers and customers.#p#分页标题#e#
The volume of work is overwhelming (too many customers demand service at the same time).
Employees are expected to cross-sell services in inappropriate situations. For example, is the employee supposed to “sell” other products while providing service?
Employees have more work to do than they have time to do it.
3. Employee-Job Fit. This is the match between the employee’s skill level and their job description. In order for Gap 3 to be avoided, employees must first believe they are able to perform their jobs well, the company must hire qualified people, and management must devote sufficient time and resources to hiring and selecting employees.
4. Fit between Technology and the Job. Gap 3 exists when employees are not given reliable and appropriate tools and technology to perform their jobs.
5.Supervisory Control Systems. Organizations must implement appropriate evaluation and reward systems to prevent Gap 3 from occurring. For example, employees must know what aspects of their jobs will be stressed in performance evaluations: are they evaluated on how well they interact with customers? Also, are those who serve customers best more likely to be rewarded financially or through career advancement and/or recognition? And finally, organizations must ask themselves whether their employees are empowered to deliver service; do employees have to receive approval from other departments before delivering service?
6. Perceived Control. This is the extent to which employees perceive that they can act flexibly rather than acting by rote when solving service problems. This can be measured when the following questions are answered:
Do employees spend time resolving problems that they have little control over?
Are employees given the freedom to make decisions to satisfy customers’ needs?
Are employees encouraged to learn new ways to better serve their customers?
Are employees required to get approval from other departments before delivering service?
7. Teamwork. Employees and managers working together toward a common goal. Positive indicators of a cooperative and productive atmosphere are as follows: support staff provide good support to customer-contact staff; employees are personally involved and committed to the company; customer- contact staff cooperate with—rather than compete against—other employees; and employees are encouraged to work together to provide customer service.
Gap 4. When Promises Do Not Match Delivery
Your advertisements brag about your organization’s exceptional service, and raise your customers’ expectations. But are you able to deliver on the promise?
Customers perceive that organizations are delivering low-quality service when a gap appears between promised levels of service and the service that is actually delivered. This gap is created when advertising, personal selling or public relations over-promise or misrepresent service levels.#p#分页标题#e#
This gap can also occur when companies do not inform their customers of special “behind-the- scenes” efforts that are designed to serve to improve service levels, but are not visible to customers. Making customers aware of these standards or efforts can heighten their service perceptions. If either or both of the following indicators are present, Gap 4 probably exists.
Inadequate horizontal communication within and across departments (operations, marketing, and human resources) and branches can be responsible for Gap 4. This problem can be alleviated when customer-contact staff have input in the planning and execution of advertising, and/or are made aware of external communications aimed at customers before it “hits the streets”. Also, when customer service and sales functions are separate and distinct, the sales force must communicate with customer-contact staff to discuss the level of service that can be promised to customers.
Another major cause of Gap 4 is a propensity to over promise in external communications. As a result, the company’s promises do not accurately reflect what customers receive in the service encounter. Commonly, a higher degree of discrepancy occurs when there is increasing pressure inside the company to generate new business or when competing organizations over promise to gain new customers.
In summary, the Gap Analysis Model can help identify causes of poor service. In particular, the questionnaire in the Appendix may be helpful in applying the Gap Analysis Model. Knowing the causes, we can work to remedy them, to close gaps, and to improve service quality.
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