Science is a process of generating knowledge , this process relies on the phenomenon , and found that the theory can be established from observation. In science teaching, observation is an important part of learning , but also an important way students learn. Ability to observe students as a way to grow is to gradually develop through learning . Well, in science class how to develop students' ability to observe it? As a work of science teaching in the years I think we can from the following aspects .
Give full play to the leading role of teachers , students' ability to observe
Ability to observe students and teachers have a crucial role to play the role of a good teacher , the students will be able to observe the ability to get better training . So, when the ability to observe students , teachers should do the following:
Before class provides context to observe the creation of good material , good observation preparations
One of the most important features of modern learning is experiential ,experience is the feeling and awareness of physical activity and direct experience arising . Experience can learn to enter the field of knowledge , so that the learning process is not only a knowledge of the growth process , but also the physical and mental integrity and process and personality development, and science courses in observation activities is the most direct expression of this approach to learning . Therefore , teachers should prepare students to observe the activities of the work , and to try to observe the activities of naturally occurring under the conditions set for students to create observation , situational studies , maintaining its " true colors ." Because everything comes from learning all objective observation , not a god or man . For example : In the "snail" in this class, I provide students with a magnifying glass, the students themselves Zhuolai snails and some auxiliary materials , let go and allow students to freely observe the research questions that interested him . Students face plate of snails and put a magnifying glass , can not help but to touch his hand , with a magnifying glass to look closely observe naturally into exploration activities went. At this point, I do not join the students during exploration activities allow students to feel that teachers are part of their research activities . At this time, teachers also need to use the eyes and ears attention to each student's every move , which is to be keenly aware of what the students are doing ? What are you thinking ? What to say ? What controversy ? Ask a few "how do you want it?" "Why think so " valuable guide students to ask scientific questions : ? If you are caught in which snails ? It is natural for students to know snails living environment. Help students to develop a pragmatic nature of scientific inquiry activities. Allowing students to master a certain amount of learning, exploring small animals that live environment from the start , as the back way to observe other small animals to do the groundwork .
To stimulate students' interest in the practice of inquiry , develop their ability to observe
Ability to observe , not by lecturing to instill in others , but rely on their own practice in the observation , " Gordon " out. At first observation , the students will inevitably have to dream , blah, Hu dry , but in observing the activities will gradually master the methods and procedures of observation, and then guide them to the teacher , " Qucuqujing , Quweicunzhen from here ." As in the "water" of the class, I let the students themselves through experiments , observation, research, talk about " What did you find ? " Class students are actively discussed in full swing . In this process, I asked the students to timely adjust the wrong step , the method is not good to try again another way . Finally, students come to both reasonable , but also unexpected conclusion , there are some textbooks ; are also not on the books , such as: the wind blows , the water will ripple ; chopsticks in the water will become " bent " ; water will " change "color , etc. , the real reached from textbooks, higher than textbooks, enriching the students ' knowledge and improve students' ability to observe and understand the observation method : seeing, ears , hands touching , smelling , With tools.
Observations made at the time appropriate guidance to improve the effectiveness of students to observe
Science class , what the teacher's role is it ? Teacher's role is not to tell , but not indoctrination , but to help , is to guide , guide students to discuss the direction toward the center of the problem by . Teachers should at neutral stance on services for children , not easily to conclusions , who is right, who is wrong , to guide students to the facts and truth, to prove his statement is reliable , teachers may agree with the majority 's view written on a chalkboard , even if the " wrong point of view ." Such as when the class is not material , it is not proved wrong , the teacher can produce these materials in contradiction with the next class , organize students again for the actual research , speak with the facts , to encourage students to recognize the facts and concepts , clarify errors, students rigorous scientific attitude and style , so that students with problems observed clearly observe the contents .
Observed to provide as much opportunity for students to observe the training initiative
Ability to observe students in teaching , mainly through experiments. In addition, the object of extensive scientific research , so that the teacher can find examples of observable in everyday life , production activities , and guide students to observe and think. Since the object of this activity is to observe the students' daily life of common scientific phenomena , and by the students themselves relatively independent observation , which will not only help students to observe the enthusiasm, initiative , but also for the development of other capabilities also have a positive role, but also integrate other disciplines.
Develop good scientific attitude and observation interest , ability to observe students
Good scientific attitude is an important condition to create pillars . Therefore, to train students to observe good attitude and interest in science , students must first observe good habits and mental quality of scientific observation .
Good habits of observation is a prerequisite
First, the purpose to train students to observe habits. Observation is a purposeful activity of perception , in the absence of a clear perception of the task , the object is often superficial , incomplete , a clear perception of the purpose of the task to a thing , an object of perception is more complete and clear . Therefore , students must develop purposeful , planned, selectively habits observed . Second, we must develop a comprehensive view of student habits . Since everything has some of its own internal relations , and among other things, and there are some links. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy of observation, to grasp the essential nature of things, there should be a full step methodically observe and distinguish between major and minor phenomenon phenomenon . Finally, develop a good habit of repetition and long-term observation . Because a lot of things, especially the development of sudden , rapid, due to the observation could not keep pace , yet clearly observed phenomena disappeared. Therefore, the results of repeated observations to make more reliable . In addition , due to the observed secondary phenomena more attractive, easy to overlook the main phenomena observed , and then had to be repeated observation. In order to enhance the durability of observation, but also must develop a long-term observation of the habits, such as breeding animals, grow plants , etc., must adhere to a long-term observation . Have observed observation records , records to be accurate, specific and realistic.
Good psychological quality is the key observation
Observed to be careful, be careful when you observe that , miss every small change. Not careful it does not get to the things of the subtle detail , you can not leave a lasting memory , it could not rule summed things . So not only to observe firsthand look, but also in-depth look , to all aspects , inside and out , careful and meticulous , fine observation. But there is just not enough careful when looking at things more patience. Observation of complex things , especially creative observation, often requires a lot of hard work , the need for perseverance . Some fleeting phenomenon , the need for repeated observations ; some phenomenon changes slowly, require long-term observation ; experiment failed due to some phenomenon , experiments need to be re- observation. These require patience, no patience , it is impossible to obtain reliable , accurate and ideal observations. In the observation process , teachers should guide students , while observing , while thinking, http://www.ukthesis.org/jyx/ ask a few "Why ." If observations do not use their brains , not positive thinking , even new things on the front , will miss the opportunity to capture ; rather look everywhere , thinking man can often get important findings from people accustomed to the phenomenon . Therefore, after careful observation to ponder , analyze, compare , synthesize, summarize , make reasonable judgments, draw the right conclusions. After each observation , the observation results to adopt a practical approach to the real record , not subjective imagine any amendments or artificially fabricated data . If the experimental observation is inconsistent with the expected results , to find out the reasons , a careful analysis , to repeat the experiment .
To teach the scientific method of observation , ability to observe students
Only the scientific method of observation , students only have to get better observation skills to train , therefore , to equip students with the scientific method of observation is very very important , therefore , necessary in science teaching methods to teach students to observe the system . Students try to observe the following methods :
Verify that observation is to select a representative things , through observation, theoretical things, the essential characteristics were observed to verify . For example, in teaching third grade " neck grows higher ," a lesson , let the students observe several mining plant stems to shape characteristics , students from the stem thickness, hardness , smoothness , etc. tell their different. The teacher asked , " Although there are differences between them , but since the plant stems are called , must have in common , we take a look for me?" Students in small groups to observe and compare , given different teachers to help guide the inspections . During this process of teaching , teachers did not tell the students step by step how to do it, just give students guidance in one direction , " Since they called stems, certainly there are similarities ," so that students learn how to learn , to find out by the students themselves in the observation comparison same point similar things. Students then again according to the characteristics of the stem to summarize the role of the stem . Use verification observation that specific textbook theory , authenticity , and in the consolidation of the verification process has been studied both theoretical knowledge , but also train the students realistic pursuit of ideological truth.
Comparison of observation
Comparative characteristics of observation is to grab something to compare their similarities and differences in the methods. While observing two or more organisms or biological specimens, wall charts , models, to guide students to use comparative observation . For example , when the book "Animal " in teaching third grade unit , allowing students to observe the shape characteristics snails , earthworms , ants, goldfish and other animals , the let the students carefully touch , observe the physical , and then to actually fill out the comparison between the external morphology table , the last guide students according to both external morphological characteristics derive their respective environmental conditions and living habits . The use of comparative observation, so that both the observation point clear and easy to remember , to avoid confusion observations content. In comparison to observe the process, students can obtain a preliminary comparison of different things , analysis, synthesis ,
Anatomy of decomposition observation
Anatomy of law is to be observed in all aspects of an object or individual components - unbundled, carefully observed , so that students can understand things more clearly , such as flower structure is observed from outside to inside a tweezers layer of the tear .
Is to allow students from top to bottom , front to back , left to right , from start to finish . From near and far , from simple to complex , from easy to difficult in order to observe the shape characteristics of an object . As observed ants, ant the first observation of the shape characteristics of three : head, thorax , abdomen three parts, and then observe the ant's head has antennae, last observation ants have three pairs of legs in the chest , the overall understanding of the ant ; observe the trees to guide students from on the observation , the students know the trees are composed of crown , trunk , roots .
Typical characteristics of observation
Guide students to observe the most obvious features of objects , and then observe its general characteristics . Insects such as observation , look at its typical characteristics of the body is divided into three parts : head, thorax , abdomen, head to look at them with a pair of antennae , thorax with three pairs of legs , forming a complete picture of the insect understanding.
There are many methods of observation , teachers can allow students to choose different observation methods depending on the class type .
In short, the primary science teaching , teachers should give full play to the leading role of teachers , to firmly establish the concept of student-centered teaching , observing activities and actively promote students to explore personal experience -based learning activities , in-depth guidance, inspiration, demand and help students so that students learn to use the correct method to observe the eye up, keen and up, ears spirit up, read the mouth , brain alive , and gradually into the best learning state , a habit and a good scientific attitude scientific observation , Society observation summary and conclusions , to enhance the interest of students to observe the mysteries of science to improve the effectiveness of students' scientific observation , students ability to observe , and ultimately improve the quality of teaching students to love science, learning science with science. Armed with the knowledge learned in their own minds , to make themselves more with the spiritual head , the road leading to the door wider and wider knowledge .
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