Measuring The Outcomes Of Children In Poverty
高调的虐待儿童的情况下,一直认为迫切需要当地政府确保早期获得有效的支持,政府应该保证将有足够的资源服务儿童，为早期干预和预防做准备。 C&F特别脆弱，需要访问和优质服务(斯坦森,2004)。 然而正是这些C&F，最不可能接受对他们直接的服务,因为结构和知觉障碍。当前的重点在于早期干预，最初的目标是让报告像镜子一样,但随着社会工作的显著差异，不再发挥中心作用。现在越来越多的专业团体，扮演与儿童和家庭领域的早期干预的角色(EICF)。
Measured outcomes of UK children and young peoples well-being poverty, health, behaviour and relationships suggests that they are doing poorly in comparison to their equivalents in other developed parts of Europe and the rest of the globe (Bradshaw, et al., 2006; UNICEF, 2007). Over the past decade the Labour government has focused on accomplishing first class developmental outcomes for children by attempting to make society more inclusive to vulnerable children and families (C&F) through offering more assistance and resources at an earlier stage rather than waiting for problems to develop (Cleaver and Walker, 2004).
In response to high profile child abuse cases, Lord Laming (2003, 2009) has consistently identified an urgent need for local authorities to ensure early access to effective support for children in need, recommending the government should guarantee that children's services will have sufficient resources for early intervention and preventative services. C&F who are particularly vulnerable will need both accessible and good quality services (Statham, 2004). However it is these C&F who are least likely to take up the services directed towards them because of both structural and perceptual barriers (Acheson, 1998). The current shift of emphasis towards early intervention has been said to mirror the original aims of the Seebohm Report but with the significant difference that social work no longer plays a central role (Parton, 2008). Instead more professional groups are now playing the role in the area of early intervention with children and families (EICF).#p#分页标题#e#
This paper seeks to offer a fuller understanding of the area of EICF. The papers objective is to look at who should care about this important area of social welfare. Whilst there is a public responsibility of care to ensure the health and welfare of children (Eliot, 1958) the focus of care here is upon professionals and agencies working with C&F.
The paper is motivated by firsthand experience of working in children's services where social workers were evidently frustrated by their lack of involvement in the EICF field and where other professionals felt like a cheap and ineffective alternative for vulnerable C&F. Despite a vast array of literature in the area of early intervention there is an apparent lack of direction as to which professionals should care about EICF. This has inspired an argument that non-social work staffs involvement, whilst well intentioned, can be damaging for C&F and therefore social work should be playing more of a role in this significant area.
dissertation的大纲-Outline of the paper
The following chapter charts the methodology used in generating literature and information in the subject area chosen for this dissertation. It explains the literature searches conducted and the scope and focus of the resources accessed. Further the limitation of using this methodology is explored and alternative research techniques identified.
Chapter three presents a thorough background to the subject of EICF. This includes defining the key terms used in the paper and providing a simplified historical, political and legal context given the highly complex nature of the subject. This is lastly followed by trying to identify who services target when thinking about the EICF area.
Chapter four explores the current tier 2 services and processes that the Labour government have introduced in the EICF field. This consists of Sure Start, Connexions and the Common Assessment Framework. This chapter will explore the outcomes for recipients of these services and the impact it has upon those that deliver them. This exploration will show that all three initiatives are not delivering positively in the EICF field.
In response to the information presented up to this point, chapter five explores social works role in the EICF field. This chapter looks firstly at why social work has been restricted from this area and pushed to deal only with families in crisis. This is followed by demonstrating that social works role is being reignited through Children's Trusts and successful social work early intervention teams are discussed. Lastly social works future role in EICF will be justified by showing that the professions unique value base positions it well to take a leading role in this area, which in turn may allow social workers to begin readdressing social injustices that impact upon this area of social welfare.#p#分页标题#e#
The concluding chapter draws together all information presented and highlights that instead of giving EICF to professionals who appear reluctant to accept the role that it should be given to social workers who can begin to target hard to reach C&F and the social injustices that add to the disadvantage of so many service users.
This chapter gives an overview of the methodology employed in researching the subject area for this paper. It provides information on the methods used and also the scope and purpose of the data included. It will also deal with the limitations of the methods used and make suggestions for further study.
This paper will take the form of a literature review. Ebeling and Gibbs (2008) state that the aim of a literature review is to provide the history of a subject, consider ways of conducting practical research, and to contextualise, theorise and construct research questions based on the available literature. They add that a high-quality literature review uses 'appropriate breadth and depth, rigour and consistency, clarity and brevity, and effective analysis and synthesis; in other words, uses the ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic' (2008: 1). Further, a literature review can help fill in the gaps in existing research (Adams et al., 2007). Therefore conducting a literature review is an academically enriching process that affords the writer the opportunity to collect comprehensive knowledge of the literature and provide greater clarity on a specific research question (Hart, 2002).
There appears to be very little direct literature on the issue of who should care about EICF. This may be partly due to the fashionableness and quickening pace of the topic area which has seen a raft of policies and initiatives with minimal evaluation and reflection of where we currently are or where we need to be going. The hollow expressions of 'it is still too early to tell' or 'we still need to do more' are common across both government guidance and research. However indirect literature does exist which looks at EICF and evaluates its impact on both service users and professionals. Despite modest direct literature, Adams et al., (2007) believes a good literature review is one that has not already been done and therefore adds something to the profession or person reading it. It is hoped that this paper fulfils this.
There are three types of literature reviews in the social sciences: narrative review, which blends key research into one descriptive account; meta-analysis, a quantitative report utilising statistical techniques to accumulate the research and, more suitable for this research paper, a systematic review, which amalgamates relevant research and critically evaluates it according to an explicit hypothesis (Ebeling and Gibbs, 2008).#p#分页标题#e#
In order to access the literature relating to EICF, searches were conducted using academic database search engines to gain a wider amount of up to date journal articles. To facilitate this, the following databases were used: CSA Social Sciences Databases, Applied Social Sciences Index and lastly Abstracts and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences. Search terms entered included child, children, young people, family, families, early intervention, prevention, sure start, connexions, common assessment framework and social work. These alternative terms were used in various combinations to elicit as much information as possible (Adams et al., 2007). However due to a vast amount of irrelevant literature, only peer-reviewed articles were included and explored further.
Another approach adopted was to note down interesting articles referenced in the original journal articles generated by the database searches and then seek these and follow them up. This process casted out a wider net to ensure significant literature was not negated from this paper. Due to the explorative nature of this literature review there are no significant theorists or key contributors to the area of who should care about EICF. However searching the universities and public libraries catalogues revealed some useful books that added value to the paper.
It was discovered that the journal databases were themselves limited in what information they could provide and therefore other sources needed accessing. As a result online research was conducted. This included exploring relevant journals individually, accessing the websites of statistics and social research departments and lastly thoroughly investigating and examining the websites of government departments (DCSF and DoH) and charities (NCB; NSPCC; Save the Children etc) to gain an appreciation and understanding of the differing organisational perspectives of the current issues faced by C&F.
The majority of the literature used within this paper falls under the social sciences umbrella due to the nature of the subject area chosen. However a small part of the paper identifies what is happening in the mental health sector to illustrate a point and therefore draws slightly wider into psychology or medical sources. The journal information presented here is mainly from the millennium onwards due to the trendiness of the subject area. However key papers, articles or literature from the 1940's to the millennium are used where they provide a greater richness to the overall paper.
Although the focus of this paper is on children and families (C&F), the complexity of the subject area means that some literature will not always cut neatly across and describe both C&F in their work. This is why a range of literature is used that will cover and consist of either children individually, families individually or both collectively. Further although research into early intervention does exist in other countries of the world it will not be sourced. The reason for this is that it too does not focus on who should care about EICF and therefore provides nothing to strengthen this paper.#p#分页标题#e#
The aim of the literature review is to offer a breadth of research on the subject area chosen and to compile the ideas unearthed from the discussed work into a well reasoned argument that responds to the papers purpose (Hart, 2003). This entails trying to generate and elicit answers to some of the following questions: what are the current EICF services; are these services effective; do they target the right C&F; what are the opinions of professionals offering these services; where is social work positioned within the EICF sector; why has social work not been involved in the EICF sector; what does social work have to offer the EICF sector and what does it in return have to offer the profession. It is hoped that the answers to these questions will be teased out from the literature identified and will add something of value to the question of who should care about EICF.
限制和伦理性考量-Limitations and ethical considerations
Due to time and ethical constraints it has not been possible to conduct an empirical piece of research on the subject matter chosen. However this literature review hopefully compensates for this by providing not only a good range of the available literature but also a critical analysis of the subject area to generate some interesting ideas for consideration of future researchers and government departments. A literature review is limited because although it provides the groundwork to a subject area or research question, it stops just short of empirically testing the information found (Hart, 2003). Therefore if an empirical research methodology was available for future research on the subject matter, the author would design it using the research method of ethnomethodology (Garfinkel, 1967). This approach seeks to gather data from the perspectives of families, professionals and other people on the front line to generate and contrast their perspectives and assist the research process. What has been particularly evident when reading government papers is the lack of consultations with those who the initiatives actually target. Jordan (2002) would like to see service users more vigorously involved in the design and implementation of research. Although gaining access to hard to reach C&F may be difficult for this process, it is up to researchers to try and find innovative and empowering ways to include this population in the participation and design of future research.
Whilst a literature review doesn't hold the same level of ethical factors as empirical research, as the paper is a public document consideration should still be given to ethics. Firstly this literature review represents only the view of the author and may not represent the views of the university or local authority. Secondly because of the nature of the research all information is secondary sourced. Therefore although the author has tried to capture the essence of authors work and their participant's views, there will always be a small probability that the information doesn't accurately represent the participants of authors work. Finally and most importantly, the subject of EICF can be seen as a sensitive subject that touches upon issues such as Human Rights (1998) and self determination. Whilst the author does not deny that some families can work through their own issues with minimal intervention, this paper is offered as a way to address all service users whose lives unfortunately see them in vulnerable positions.#p#分页标题#e#