代写assignment：American art therapy
In the 1930s, the American psychiatrist namberg clearly proposed the concept of "art therapy". Under her impetus, art therapy gradually developed in the United States and rapidly extended to various developed countries. So far, however, the us has led the way in terms of size, quality and so on. Music therapeutic society was founded in 1960 in the United States, and the professional theory magazine American art therapy magazine was founded in 1961. In 1965, the American dance therapy association was founded. In 1969, the American art therapy association was established as a national professional organization, which was a milestone in the development of art therapy in the United States and the world. AAA is responsible for coordinating national art therapy and organizing annual academic seminars.
Starting in the 1970s, the prestigious art institute of Chicago first offered a master's degree in art therapy and awarded it. Since then, many American universities have offered courses in this field, awarding bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, and being accredited and certified by the American council for the accreditation of art therapy. Most states in the United States allow people to practice art therapy in hospitals and clinics after obtaining an art therapy certification. There are over 100 professional art therapy institutions in the United States.
The rapid development of art therapy in the United States is mainly due to the change of the dominant mode of disease, the change of the cognitive mode of etiology and the change of the dominant mode of treatment. American statistics show that at the beginning of the 20th century, 28 people died of diseases per 1,000 deaths per year, mainly due to physical diseases not directly related to mental factors: pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid, dysentery and so on. With the development of conventional medicine, nine of the 1,000 deaths in 1972 were caused by illness. The major diseases are the so-called "psychosomatic diseases" closely related to psychological factors: coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer and so on. The cognitive model of etiology changes from the "biological" model to the "social" model. There are also emerging disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine and psychoneuroimmunology. The treatment mode also changed from the treatment of "disease" to the treatment of "person", and began to pay attention to the overhaul of personality and psychological intervention.#p#分页标题#e#
Moreover, the change of disease pattern is due to the progress of material culture, the change of human life style, the stronger consciousness of human existence and the improvement of individual demand quality. It is, so to speak, part of the price mankind pays for civilization. So art therapy first developed in the richer United States.
Art biggest worry is that its curative effect is difficult to determine exactly, however, through long-term exploration, experiment, especially with the aid of modern science and technology, such as computer technology, virtual scene technology, and advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as computed tomography and electroencephalogram, nuclear magnetic resonance, determination of immunoglobulin, etc., this situation has been greatly improved, the technology has been gradually mature. Among them, music therapy and painting therapy are the most widely used and the most clear curative effect.
Music treatment techniques can be divided into two broad categories: reception and operation. Reception refers to the treatment by listening to music, and the therapist USES different music works and the combination of different music works to treat different diseases, namely the preparation of "music prescription" to perform symptomatic treatment. For example, the treatment of digestive tract diseases with Bach's sonata; Using Mozart to treat endocrine disorders and so on. After listening, the therapist or guide the patient to discuss in groups; Or guide the patient to develop imagination and discuss the meaning of the content of imagination with the patient, so as to achieve the purpose of treatment. In the 1970s, Dr. Berry, of the Maryland center for psychiatric research, created the technology for the system of imagery and music guidance, or GM. The technology divides the healing process into three parts: induction, experience and recovery. Seven music models were used: positive affirmation, death and resurrection, analytical soothing, catharsis, collective resonance, unconscious experience and reverie imagination. GM, considered a mature technology in music therapy, has been included in the doctoral program in art therapy.
The second type is also called "participation music treatment". That is to guide patients to sing, play and write music works to achieve therapeutic purposes. Music is usually chosen according to different diseases and different patients to choose different melody, rhythm and connotation for the subject to sing and play. Sometimes improvisational therapy is used, with the therapist instructing the patient to play as he pleases, to achieve therapeutic effect. In theory, this is a return to music's original functionality. Some patients with music creation basis were given corresponding themes by the therapist, such as "anger", "guilt", "serenity", etc., to let the patient improvise. Of course, these two types of technologies often come together. In recent years, music treatment in the United States has made significant progress in clinical application and achieved remarkable efficacy. In the case of encephalopathy, it is more pronounced. For example, music feedback therapy is applied to treat the gait abnormality caused by hemiplegia in stroke, control the frequency of complex epilepsy, and improve the behavior pattern of senile dementia. The application in infants and children is also remarkable. For example, use "resonance music" to normalize the autonomic nervous system activity of premature infants and increase the blood oxygen saturation concentration. It has even been shown to reduce itching in patients with psoriasis and neurodermatitis. In addition, the development of music treatment technology is also reflected in the invention of a series of instruments specially used for music treatment, such as "harpsichord bed", whose body is like a bed, allowing the healer to lie on it. The healer can not only hear music, but also directly feel beautiful vibrations through the body's touch, enhancing the therapeutic effect.#p#分页标题#e#
Painting therapy is difficult to compete with music therapy in physical diseases, but it has special functions in psychological diseases. Because human psychological activities are mostly visual, and various traumatic psychological barriers are often suppressed to the unconscious, forming "complex", which are difficult to be expressed in daily language; With the symbolic language of painting, it can express, express and integrate excellently, thus achieving the therapeutic effect. Painting therapy is especially suitable for patients who cannot or do not want to talk, such as hearing loss, mental retardation, brain damage, autism, and resistance to language. It is suitable for the treatment of painting therapy and has obvious curative effects, such as eating disorder, substance abuse, divisive personality disorder, abnormal sexual behavior and so on. Especially for children with intense emotions and difficulty in control, painting therapy has a great advantage over other therapies.
Painting therapy generally adopts two methods: "spontaneous painting" and thematic painting under the guidance of physicians. The former is of great diagnostic value and can be regarded as a result of "Rorschach inkblot test" commonly used in psychiatric diagnosis in the 1920s and 1930s. According to the literature, it is better for a skilled physician to use a painting to diagnose mental disorders than to use a "CT" or "psychometric scale". Patients, on the other hand, can look at themselves through painting, correct distorted self, improve social communication skills, enhance identity, and promote mental health and growth.
Other mature art therapies include psychological drama, sculpture therapy, story therapy, etc. At present, the most promising art therapy is "film and television" therapy, which USES modern advanced image art to create highly realistic situations and obtain specific treatment effects. For example, greater progress has been made in helping patients overcome various phobias. Art therapy, also from the early "one-to-one", gradually adopted "collective therapy", namely the establishment of "art therapy group" to achieve the resonance effect. Treatment environment is gradually developed from neutral and free from external interference, such as hospitals and clinics, into the family and daily living environment for treatment.
In early 1992, the first international art medicine conference was held in New York. As the declaration stated, "art medicine has entered a new historical stage." It can be said that art therapy is more and more systematic and perfect in technical aspects, but the theoretical basis is still relatively weak. Conventional medicine is based on the practical disciplines of physiology and biochemistry, while the main theoretical basis of art medicine is art and psychology. Therefore, in this field, there are many literatures about operation technology, but few literatures discuss it theoretically. It is generally believed that art can be an effective treatment for psychological and physical diseases, mainly because it can help people to transcend the survival dilemma from the spirit, meet the needs of affinity, and reconcile with the world and "non-self" on the unconscious level. And can optimize the personality structure, get the meaning of life and life sense of value. The most immediately observable effect is to improve the emotional state, using "suspension" and "displacement" to channel the mental and physical energy of various disorders caused by negative information. Thus, in the individual limited existence, urges the potential positive development, enables the individual to maintain the mental and physical health. Of course, art therapy still has a long way to go to become a widely used medical technology.#p#分页标题#e#