Theories and concepts of motivation
INTRODUCTION TO MOTIVATION
Although, humans possess colossal potential, the ill-fated truth is that the typical person, in a business, utilizes but a restricted amount of that potential. This usage of potential could be heightened by motivating the employees to stretch to their optimal potential. (Ghuman & Aswathappa, 2010)
Motivation, literally, means the want to work or the do things. It is what differentiates between people who wake up before dawn in order to work and people who sit around the house and laze around all day. Motivation is an essential constituent in attaining goals. (Psychology Today, n.d.)
Most people, inaccurately, look at motivation as an individual’s own quality. Motivation, however, is the outcome of the interface of a person and a situation. Motivation is described as the method that accounts for a person’s intensity, direction and persistence of determination towards accomplishing a goal or an organizational goal, in this case. (Robbins, Judge, & Sanghi, 2008)
Three elements that define motivation are intensity, direction and persistence. Intensity concerns with how hard an individual tries. This is the most focused on element when motivation is the topic at hand. Nonetheless, high-intensity is improbable to give positive job-performance results unless the effort is directed to benefit the organization. Consequently, the quality of effort and its intensity is deliberated. Effort directed towards, and constant with, the company’s goals is the effort that should be seeked. To conclude, motivation has a dimension called persistence. This measures the longevity of an individual’s efforts. People that are motivated continue an undertaking long enough to accomplish their objective. (Robbins, Judge, & Sanghi, 2008)
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory:
In this theory, Maslow (1954), explained the hierarchy of five human needs. As one need is mollified, the subsequent need starts to dominate. These five needs along with specific examples in context of work and home are mentioned below:-#p#分页标题#e#
education, religion, hobbies, personal growth
training, advancement, growth, creativity
approval of family, friends, community
recognition, high status, responsibilities
family, friends, clubs
teams, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates
freedom from war, poison, violence
work safety, job security, health insurance
food water sex
Heat, air, base salary
As per Maslow, the minor needs take significance. These needs have to be fulfilled in order to move to the other needs. In other words, it is unimportant to think of whether a certain clothing item will make you look good or not when starvation is killing you or your life is being threatened. Some simple things take priority over everything else.This theory tends to work rationally. On the basis of this theory, if an individual was hungry and didn’t have a suitable roof over his/her head, they would not attend religious sermons or will not go to temples or churches. Which basically means that if you don’t have basic necessities to sustain life, you will not think of anything else but attaining that. But, to the contrary, the poor have a tendency of being more religious than the rich do. The theory, thus, makes a false prediction. (Analytic Tech, n.d.)
Alderfer's ERG theory
Similar to Maslow’s theory, Alderfer also categorizes needs hierarchically into three categories:
Needs to Grow (progress of competency and recognition of potential)
Needs to Relate (suitable relations with others)
Needs to Exist (physical well-being)
Similar to Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory, this could be perceived as the previous theory subsiding into just three tiers. This theory, however, is a little more rational. For instance, Alderfer's model does not put sex in the lowermost classification as in Maslow's model, as it isn’t a crucial part of an individual’s existence. What Alderfer believed was that when you begin to satisfy the higher needs, these needs get a lot more intense which is similar to an addiction. (Ghuman & Aswathappa, 2010)
These theories suggest the following:
Everybody is not motivated in the same ways or by similar things. Motivation would depend on where a person stands in the hierarchy.
The hierarchy of organizations is probably mirrored by the hierarchy of needs to an extent as managers at the top are motivated by self-actualization or growth needs than existence needs. (Robbins, Judge, & Sanghi, 2008)#p#分页标题#e#
Two Factor theory (Herzberg)
Two certain factors have different impacts on motivation as it is said by Herzberg.
Hygiene factors – Although, the absence of these factors motivates, the presence of them does not have any apparent consequence. The lack of these dissatisfy people and make them act in ways to get them back. Examples of these factors comprise of proper working circumstances, safety, salary, remunerations (like a good health insurance), policies of the company, interactive relations. Basically, these are extrinsic things that are low in Maslow’s hierarchy.
Motivators - These factors are those when present, they motivate individuals. The absence of these factors doesn’t create any certain displeasure to individuals, it just does not motivate. For example, all the needs that are given at the topmost level of Maslow’s hierarchy and also the intrinsic motivators.
Basically, hygiene factors conclude discontent and motivators conclude contentment. These are two independent scales and being high on both of these is a possibility. (Analytic Tech, n.d.)
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor has made a suggestion that states that managers make two different common assumptions in relation to the nature of the people working under him and also about how these people assume the work they are given in a managerial setting. The two perceptions manifest in the attitude and conduct of the manager while conversing with their subordinates. Managers considerably impact the way managers try to motivate people working under them and the tools they use for it. McGregor has characterized all the perceptions that are made by the managers in relation to the behavior of their employees into two groups that are labelled as Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X comprises of fairly undesirable perceptions that the managers make in respect to the attitude of the employees and the nature of the humans when it comes to their work. The managers who believe in Theory X, consider that:
Average employees do not like to work and try to escape it as much as conceivable.
Average employees avoid responsibility, have very little ambition.
Security is their main concern and they prefer to be directed.
Employees are very self-centered.
Need to be directed very closely to get them to put in the required efforts in work in order to achieve the goals of the organizations.
Most of the employees are not intelligent or creative enough to solve organizational problems.
Most employees are not open to change.
(Ghuman & Aswathappa, 2010)
Theory Y exemplifies an entirely altered tactic to motivation. Managers that pledge to this said theory have comparatively optimistic views of human nature and the attitude of the employees’ towards their work. A manager who would believe in this theory would believe that:#p#分页标题#e#
Employees recognize the bodily and perceptual effort during work as a natural action, like playing or resting.
Employees can self-direct and self-control and achieve objectives they are committed to.
The amount of commitment an employee shows towards the objectives of the company is proportionate to how big the rewards that are associated with them are.
An average employee could learn to take responsibility.
The competence to use imagination, ingenuity and creativity to solve problems of the company is extensively predominant amongst the people and isn’t scarcely distributed to selected people.
Intellectually, the average potential of a person is only marginally utilized in current setting of organizations.
(Ghuman & Aswathappa, 2010)
Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
This theory, backed by Victor Vroom, is grounded on the procedure of motivation. This theory states that a person’s inclination to behave in a particular way is on the basis of an anticipation that their act is going to be followed by a certain result; the result shall be followed by a reward; that particular reward is what appears to attract the employee. Expectancy Theory is supposed to combine various elements of theories mentioned previously. Fundamentally, the Expectancy theory derives this particular "equation":
M = E*I*V
Motivation = expectancy * instrumentality * valence
M (motivation) is the extent to which a person can be motivated in respect to the situation that they find themselves in. This is the purpose of the following.
E (expectancy) – The perception of a person is the effort that will result in performance. To be more precise, an employee's judgment of the mark to which the efforts correlate with performances.
I (instrumentality) = An employee's assumption that their performance is going to be rewarded or punished, i.e., the assessment a person does of how well the reward compares with the performance quality.
V(valence) = The assumed reward or penance that results from an individual’s performance. If the reward is mediocre, the motivation will be mediocre, even if the anticipation and instrumentality are both impeccable. (Analytic Tech, n.d.)
Employee motivation programs launched by Taj Group of Hotels
How employees are affected by motivation:
Employees that are motivated will constantly seek for improved ways as to how they should finish a task.
Motivated employees would concentrate more on quality.
Motivated employees tend to be more productive. (Slide Share, n.d.)#p#分页标题#e#
Vision of Taj: Embracing capacity and harnessing skill to impact excellence in the hospitality trade and to nurture global presence, upsurge national domination to produce significance for stakeholders. Taj’s core philosophy says “Happy employee leads to happy customer”.(Slide Share, n.d.) (Taj Hotels, n.d.) The Taj people have faith in doing something for the society and programs centered around people. (Slide Share, n.d.) (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
Taj’s Motivational Program (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
Taj People philosophy (TPP) (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
Balance scorecard system (BSS) (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
STAR system (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
Training programs (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
(Slide Share, n.d.)
Taj People Philosophy the Taj people philosophy was established in 1999. Bernard Martyrs and his core team created it. This theory is created on the Taj Employee Charter. The Taj Employee Charter covers all people practices of the Taj group. (Slide Share, n.d.) (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
Taj Employee Charter all employees of the Taj Group should be a vital part of the Taj family. The people of Taj always strives to interest, maintain and recompense all of the finest flair in the business. The people of Taj will pledge themselves to proper communication channels that will foster transparency. (Taj Hotels, n.d.)
3 major aspects of TPP Processes and systems of work learning and development Welfare of employees
SPECIAL THANKS AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM (STAR System) this system was established by the senior vice-president HR, IHCL, Bernard Martyrs. This employee loyalty program came out in 2001. This system is used as an evaluation scheme which is available to every employee in the organization.
Aim of STAR To identify talent. To recognize talent and to reward talent.
Star Levels Level 1 – Silver - 120 points – 3months. Level 2 – Gold - 130 points within three months of achieving Silver. Level 3 – Platinum - 250 points - within 6 months of achieving Gold. Level 4 – Chief Operating Officers Club – accumulation of 510 to 760 points. Level 5 – MD’s Club – accumulation of 760 points or higher without a time restraint.
How points are awarded
Forums that are used by the staff to compliment their colleagues.
Points given by default.
Several schemes suggested by the employees.
Suggestions by employees that benefited the organization fetched them significant points STARS awarded according to number of points (which would be pinned to their coats)
AT VARIOUS POINTS OF STARS#p#分页标题#e#
The employees were awarded with:
Gift coupons or vacations in any of the Indian Taj Hotel they chose.
Was congratulated at a ceremony that is held at the Taj Hotel, Mumbai by the MD of the Taj group.
Photographs of the winner was demonstrated during functions.
In the hospitality industry motivation has an altogether different point of view where it is important to form an organization bond and teamwork spirit between the manager and the employee to achieve the organizational goals and outcome sin this industry because the job gets monotonous employee have to be regular motivated and this is the toughest part for the manager to do, mostly employee are motivated by giving extra perks bonuses and raises to appreciate the work they have done, so that they stay motivated and keep working this way. Therefore motivation is interlinked with job satisfaction from the employees and managers point of view, so for them it’s like a performance booster like how it’s shown about for Taj, balance scorecard, start system these are the small steps which a company take just to keep its employee motivated so that they keep up with the good work and keep on performing the same way which is a plus point for the company with the perks they get.