Training has many definitions, but at its most basic level it is simply providing an employee with the knowledge and skills needed to perform his/her current job. It is planned, and primarily concerned with improving an employee's job performance. Training generally occurs in an organization when there is a need to bring out an immediate improvement in job performance. Training is traditionally a short-term activity and is seen as a "classroom-type" activity.
Development, on the other hand, has a broader characterization than training, and typically has a long-term focus. Development is concerned with enhancing an individual's personal portfolio. Unlike training where the organization decides which parts of the workforce require enhancement, development is determined by both the organization and the needs of the individual. E.g. an employee may be sent to a series of workshops in preparation for a future promotion. Unlike training, development is not constricted to formalised group sessions. Its focus is on the learner and not the learning.
Education is concerned with replicating the social order. The influence of adult generations is impressed upon the younger generation. Education can be formal or informal. It shares traits with training and development in the sense that it should involve a learning process. It should also be planned and facilitate understanding. Where it differs is its application to learners. Education provides general knowledge for a particular discipline, but it does not have a specific job focus. An individual may enrol in an accounting degree, but not everyone will choose to become an accountant.
The major link between training, development and education is learning. Furthermore, training and education along with a desire to learn facilitate development in organizations. In other words, all four processes complement each other, and enhance an individual's potential. Management are responsible for fostering a learning attitude in an organization. A school of hundred people certainly cannot be run well if it does not have a leading group of several people, formed in accordance with the actual circumstances (and not thrown together artificially) and is composed of the most active, upright and alert of the teachers, the other staff and the students.#p#分页标题#e#
To succeed at this, an organization should think as an army. Officers teach soldiers, soldiers teach officers and soldiers teach each other. The fighters have practical combat experience. The officers should learn from the other fighters, and when they have made other people's experiences their own, they will become more capable.
Q2.Suggest and explain why HRD should be integrated with strategic goals and objectives of an organisation.
Well-chosen HRD practices can have a direct benefit on individuals and organizations as a whole. However, for this to occur, an organization must look beyond the concept of HRD as a strictly administrative role to one that is both strategic and nurtures leadership qualities in employees.
HRD should be seen not as a cost, but as an investment. It brings numerous benefits to an organization:
Employees who receive training and skills development can deliver a higher standard of work.
Employees feel more valued by an organization which boosts morale.
A motivated employee results in reduced absenteeism and lower turnover.
Prospective employees are more attracted to organizations that value employee development.
Three theoretical perspectives - human capital theory, resource-based theory and a behavioural perspective - illustrate why HRD's contribution to an organizations should be acknowledged.
Human capital theory -Understands that an investment in education, training and experience leads to direct and indirect benefits in employees. Its core argument is "investment in either formal or informal training and education increases an individual's performance, productivity and earnings (Gattiker, 1995)
Resource based theory - Effectiveness of HRD in an organization is determined by its durability and innovativeness. For organizations to stay competitive they should implement specific SHRD strategies. These can include training and leadership development.
The behavioural perspective - Says that the use of HRD should be seen as a tool to manage the overall patterns of behaviour in an organization. It contains nine key characteristics that are meant to provide an all-encompassing model of SHRD. This is with the focus of both responding and shaping business strategy.
If HRD is aligned with the strategic vision of an organization not only will the HRD capacity increase, but so will the dimensions of the company. SHRD can cultivate a commitment to learning and improvement. It strengthens the ties between management and employees as the HRD manager is often the go-to-point for both. Also, with HRD closer to the helm, mergers and acquisitions can be dealt with more efficiently.#p#分页标题#e#
Q3.Explain three implications of both pedagogy and andragogy for the design of HRD programmes.
When adopting a pedagogical approach, a HR manager should realize its limitations. Employees will become bored if they engage in strictly formalised learning. To combat this, programmes should be designed to facilitate active learning through the use of group discussions, etc.
Likewise with adopting an andragogical approach, a HR manager should bear in mind its constraints. While andragogy allows for more personal creativity than pedagogy, care should be taken to ensure that ideas are not too abstract, and keep in the line with strategic vision of the programme. Learners should be given opportunities to use experience gained in real-life scenarios.
Organizational structures need to be considered when designing programmes. If the organization has a mechanistic structure, the HR manager would be best served to deliver learning in a pedagogical manner. This suits the standardized nature of the organization, where the primary purpose of learning is for employees to specialize in one task. If the organization has an organic structure, the HR manager has the flexibility to introduce andragogical training methods. These work best in companies where management looks to their employees for input. Thus employees should be encouraged to engage in self-directed learning, so that their creative powers can be fostered.