1.0 Introduction 简介
At present, the correctness of the English language of Hong Kong students is declining (Chan and Li, 2002), the author carried out study to solve this problem. There is a debate in the education sector on how to improve the accuracy of English language in the process of student's second language acquisition, and some scholars believe that the errors that students make should not be corrected directly, as this may undermine the enthusiasm of their learning (Krashen, 1995); and some other academics hold that it should take appropriate teaching methods to actively correct the mistakes of students to help them to improve the accuracy of language (Li and Chan, 1999). In this context, Chan and Li (2002) started a study to explore whether the use of Form-focused Feedback could effectively help students to improve the accuracy of the language. In this essay, it is through a critical analysis on Chan and Li’s (2002) thesis to understand whether the use of proper teaching methods to positively correct the mistakes of students will affect the enthusiasm of students’ to learn English, whether it will effectively improve student’s accuracy in using the language, and to understand what research methods that Chan and Li (2002) used, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the research methods.
2.0 Background information about the authors 关于作者的背景信息
The authors are Hong Kong scholar who engages in study on English education. They have published several articles on second language acquisition. From her point of view, they are actively advocating through active intervention to help students to improve second language acquisition results, including how to help students to improve grammar (Chan, 2006), pronunciation (Chan, 2011), writing errors and so on (Chan, 2010). Their research not only confirms that the positive help for students to improve the errors is correct, but also provides a specific and feasible advice for how to help students to avoid the errors.
3.0 Theoretical background of the study 研究的理论背景#p#分页标题#e#
Chan and Li’s (2002) thesis mainly aimed at the effect of form-focused feedback on the correctness of language of second language learners. Form-focused feedback is a traditional learning method. It mainly intended to induce language learners to pay attention to linguistic form. However, there were many kinds of criticism for this method, one of the most important was that the use of this teaching methods made learners be seen as students, rather than users of the language, which might make students discouraged in learning and the results might be as not as what was expected (Krashen, 1995). Nevertheless, Chan and Li (2002) also referred to what Chan and Li (1999) analyzed to confirm that form-focused feedback has a positive impact on the correctness of students’ learning the language. In addition, the author also introduced the theory of pedagogical hypothesis that learners can not cross the learning stage, and only when learners are psychologically "ready", they can master the content of the class (Pienemann, 1985). Chan and Li (2002) cited the study of Long’s (1996) to criticize the theory of pedagogical hypothesis, they believed that many empirical studies have confirmed that even in the case of students are poor in English, the active teaching towards students on the grammar and structure knowledge can still significantly improve the correctness of the student’s language. Chan and Li (2002) were through their support for form-focused feedback and criticism towards the theory of pedagogical hypothesis to express their views on how to solve the problem of the decline of the correctness of the language of the students in Hong Kong, which also laid a theoretical foundation for the study and pointed out the rationality of the study.
4.0 Research conclusion 研究结论
The research conclusion of the study was that form-focused feedback can significantly improve the mastery of grammar and structure of the control group and the experiment group effectively to improve the accuracy of their language. The thesis also further stated that a model of remedial instruction structured in the form of proceduralized steps supported by explicit rules is more manageable and therefore more conducive to acquisition.
5.0 Disadvantages of the research 研究的不足
5.1 Insufficient sample grouping
Chan and Li (2002) did not set a real control group, they chose the control group which was still implemented a milder version of consciousness-raising approach. It is known that whether to correct students’ errors helps to improve the correctness of students’ language is controversial, it may help students to improve their grades, it may also make students discouraged in learning. Therefore, Chan and Li’s (2002) study showed that the achievement of the control group and the experimental group have been improved, but it did not mean that consciousness-raising approach could really play a positive role, because there was also the possibility that without consciousness- raising approach, the students’ learning initiative would not be hit, and their achievement would be increased more. Chan and Li’s (2002) study did not rule out this possibility. #p#分页标题#e#
5.2 Lack of research design
Chan and Li (2002) just defined the teaching content of the classroom teaching for the research objects, but they failed to determine the content of the students’ learning outside the classroom. As in addition to the influence of classroom learning, student's learning results are also under the influence of extracurricular learning, if some of the research objects have extracurricular learning, while the other research objects did not, which will make the research results have deviation.
5.3 Statistical deficiency
Chan and Li (2002) used the variance analysis to compare the difference of the scores of the two groups. However, this statistical method can't reflect the influence of consciousness-raising approach on students of different English levels, consciousness-raising approach might have a positive effect on students with good achievement and there was no positive or positive effect on students with poor achievement, and there was even a negative effect. Therefore, the research results put forward that consciousness-raising approach has a positive effect on all students, which was inappropriate.
6.0 Advantages of the research 研究优势
Chan and Li’s (2002) study has a high scientific value. Firstly, the researcher was very strict in the sample selection, group design, data analysis and other aspects, which was in line with the three scientific research principles: random, control, and repeatable, so the research methods and procedures established in this thesis could be the reference for other scholars in this field. Secondly, this study established the specific teaching methods and teaching contents for form-focused feedback and remedial instruction, and through empirical research to confirm their positive effect. Therefore, this study not only has the scientific research value, but also has a high reference value for the specific teaching practice of instructors. Finally, Chan and Li (2002) set a delay test in the study, the test results showed that in the long term, form-focused feedback and remedial instruction are helpful for improving the correctness of the language of students, for education management and teachers, it is also very valuable for how the reform and optimization of education system and method.
7.0 Suggestions for improvement 改进的建议
First of all, Chan and Li (2002) should set up a control group, using traditional teaching method in teaching, so that they can compare the traditional teaching method with consciousness - raising approach to show whether there is a significant difference between the influence on the students’ English achievement. Second, Chan and Li (2002) should stipulate the students’ extracurricular learning, requiring that all students should complete the same learning tasks outside classroom, so that it can eliminate interference of students’ extracurricular activities for the results. Chan and Li (2002) can adopt the method of correlation analysis to show that after using consciousness - raising approach, whether the students’ achievement is related to their original levels of English learning, if there is a positive correlation between the students’ English achievement and their original English levels, showing that consciousness - raising approach has more positive effect on students with excellent English achievement in the past, if not, indicating that consciousness - raising approach has a promoting effect on all students.#p#分页标题#e#
8.0 Conclusion 结论
In general, although there are some minor shortcomings in the thesis, Finally, Chan and Li’s (2002) research also needs to be further improved, the study has provided valuable research methods and solutions to solve the problem of the decline in the correctness of English language of students’ in Hong Kong.