英国essay范文：Britain's social security system（代写范文精选）
Capitalism has laid a material foundation for the charity of Christianity, and the charity thought in Christianity has also laid a spiritual and theoretical foundation for the development of the social security system of capitalism. Religious culture has a wide influence in Europe and it always advocates charity. Christianity declared that "all men are the children of god, and all men are brothers in the four seas. In early Europe, the propaganda of "benevolence" and "charity and relief" in religious ethics had a profound impact on later generations and played an important role in the establishment of social security system in Britain. At the same time, the principle of public and egalitarian distribution of property implemented by the early Christian societies provided the basis for the establishment of welfare distribution methods in Britain.
Religion has a huge organization system, in this sense, it will be poor into the unified organization form, but the church itself consumes most of the absorption to wealth, for the number of poor is limited, but "sometimes seems to be a pain pills" of social discontent, it can reduce the effectiveness of the role and there is no cure. Church - based charity for the poor has been gradually adopted by the government into a comprehensive social security system. After expanding and adjusting the content and form of the social security system, the government has also extensively involved itself in important social issues such as poverty, disease and unemployment. This has played an important role in the universality principle embodied in the British social security system.
Freedom is limited, but freedom should be aimed at the freedom of the majority of people, rather than the unlimited freedom of individuals as the old liberalism believed. The neoliberal doctrine has changed the traditional liberalism's opposition to state intervention, believing that freedom is not absolute and that "the state must intervene for the sake of freedom itself". It can be seen that neoliberals emphasize a new relationship between society and individuals, which is an interchangeable responsibility and obligation between society and individuals. It says countries on social economy and life positive intervention measures should be taken to prevent the liberalism and the economic system of the gap between rich and poor is bigger, but this kind of intervention is not an absolute and unlimited, is closely linked to the welfare of the individual and social welfare, the state intervention is not the ultimate goal, should put the individual freedom, individualism and collectivism coordination. "The state can take away part of an individual's property through taxation, because the state is necessary to maintain personal security, and the individual must pay a certain price for this." Neoliberals also argue that social problems are more the result of socioeconomic change.#p#分页标题#e#
Fabian theory holds that society is an organic whole, which is not only the synthesis of individuals or individuals, but also the combination of many individuals, and there is an appropriate coordination between individuals and society. We should attach importance to the whole, take the continuation of the society as the goal, and maximize the benefits through certain mutual assistance and cooperation. Economically, everyone has the right to pursue his own interests. In politics, the state has the right and obligation to ensure the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. However, when the two conflicts occur, Fabian advocates that the government should intervene in social life to achieve social improvement and solve social problems. Only when everyone in the social system lives an equal, free and democratic life can he give full play to his potential and improve social benefits. Fabian socialist thought of social security emphasizes the bilateral responsibilities and obligations of the state and citizens, that is, both of them have the right to pursue the maximization of interests. It should be noted that although the capitalist private system in Britain was not very reasonable at that time, Fabian socialism did not emphasize the necessity to overthrow capitalism, but the establishment of a system similar to the socialist nature of national happiness to enhance people's happiness. Therefore, fabianism, as a theoretical basis, played a certain role in establishing a universal social security system and welfare system in Britain.
Capitalist system is not perfect, do not have self-adjusting mechanism. The "free competition" market economy will inevitably bring bankruptcy and unemployment. Keynes believed that government intervention in economic life could only control and adjust its function and efficiency. He elaborated the idea of state intervention in the economy and the theory of insufficient effective demand, hoping that the state would regulate the distribution of citizens, increase national consumption, promote economic growth and achieve full employment. At the same time, Keynes not only proposed that the government should intervene in the economy, but also explained how and to what extent. For example, the establishment of progressive tax system and the implementation of social security system such as minimum wage is a form and means for the state to intervene in the redistribution and expenditure of national income. This theory obviously influenced the process of establishing social security system in Britain.
Britain was the cradle of the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution in Britain greatly promoted the development of industry and strengthened the ranks of the working class, which brought great material wealth to Britain. But with the development of industrialization, all kinds of social contradictions and problems come one after another. With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing scale of cities, farmers are turning into workers and living by selling their labor force. It is easy for them to fall into poverty and helplessness. In the face of poverty and unemployment rising and various social problems, the ruling class in order to eliminate the consequences of industrialization to maintain its own long-term interests, in order to consolidate his rule, began in earnest the adjustment of the social welfare policy, accordingly puts forward some legislative policy, and established to poverty alleviation in this period as the main mission of the state institutions, and put forward a new way of guarantee, in the protection of laborer survival risk at the same time, improve the level of people's whole life, deal with the various problems in life, and promote the further development of the economy.#p#分页标题#e#
Although the industrial revolution brought great material wealth to Britain, it also made the distribution of social wealth in Britain more and more unequal. On the one hand, the development of capitalist economy is very rapid, capitalists rely on the original accumulation to make their capital like a snowball rolling; On the other hand, the broad masses of laborers who lack means of production live in poverty for a long time. British society is in a period of polarization. Since the 19th century, serious poverty and unemployment have made social conflicts more acute than ever, and affected the security, stability and development of Britain. At this time, Britain was carrying out the expansion of foreign capitalism and constantly expanding its territory and colonies overseas. However, most British military candidates failed the physical examination, which was caused by long-term malnutrition. Without a strong military, foreign capital expansion is not only impossible, but also a threat to the security of the country. It can be seen that the poverty problem not only affects the political economy of Britain, but also seriously affects the military efficiency and management efficiency of British capitalism. The ruling class has increasingly realized that, through the reform of distribution mode, it is one of the basic measures to guarantee the stability of the country to give some support to these poor people and unemployed people so that they do not struggle in the poverty line. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt various means to establish a social security system, eliminate poverty and the gap between the rich and poor caused by poverty, and ease social contradictions.
Soon after the World War I, pent-up consumer demand during the war began to expand, and Britain's economy boomed. But the good times did not last long. The economic crisis that began in 1929 in the United States almost swept over the entire capitalist world, with astonishing destructive force. The heavy burden of the crisis was gradually transferred to the vast number of workers, Britain was also severely affected by the economic crisis. There has been a serious decline in production, a large number of factories closed down, many enterprises and operators of the accumulation of instantaneous bubble, a large number of surplus goods, the destruction of social material wealth, a large number of productive forces have been idle, destroyed; Millions of workers have lost everything for a while. Unemployment has soared. Many schools are no longer enrolling students, and even public schools have been forced to close, leaving hundreds of thousands of students out of school. The credit crisis led to the collapse of Banks, all Banks were paralyzed, further expanded to the currency crisis, world trade also fell into contraction and stagnation; Agricultural prices plunged. In order to restore the economy, countries began to compete for the market again, their currencies depreciated, and the world market became smaller as a result. A new economic crisis broke out in 1937. Faced with this unprecedented crisis, the British government began to pay real attention to the construction of the social security system, expand the scope of social security, in order to cope with various problems caused by the economic crisis, comprehensive protection of people's basic living needs.#p#分页标题#e#
The British government began to pay attention to the basic living conditions of the people in the World War I. During the war, the British government raised the social welfare level, especially in terms of children's welfare and medical care. After the World War II, a large number of servicemen and women needed to be re-employed, their illness and disability problems, the issue of allowances for the survivors of the war and so on needed to be solved. After the war, peace improved the material civilization of the British people, and the British government began to actively formulate social security programs to enable every citizen to live a decent life under any circumstances. So the social security program gradually expanded from the privilege of military personnel only to military families and then to all citizens, developed and improved the housing, living and urban environment of citizens, helped the unemployed and the poor get rid of misfortune and so on. The state has defined the social security system through legislation. At this time of the social security system has been thoroughly changed the wartime temporary emergency measures to alleviate the economic and social contradictions of the state, but as a long-term strategy, to promote the extensive development of the economic system and constantly improve and guarantee the basic life needs of all citizens, is an important part of the reconstruction program. This had a major impact on the establishment of a welfare state in Britain.