英国essay代写：The Healing Power of Music
In the article “The Healing Power of Music” by William Forde Thompson and Gottfried Schlaug, published in Scientific America in March 2015, the ability of music to heal both mentally and physically is discussed. Although music is traditionally perceived as an artform and seldom correlated with healing, it has been incorporated into treatment processes by different cultures. The connection between music and psychology is established through four aspects. Firstly, the social and emotional feature of music makes it the perfect substitute for language. Secondly, the influence of music on the patient are often difficult to quantify, but long term effects are visible. Thirdly, there are increasing emphasis on the importance of music in therapies, which have been applied with success in multiple occasions. Finally, music has shown promising potentials in the treatment of dementia and autism. Although the effect of music can be subtle and undetectable, scientists are putting in more efforts to quantify the influences of music, making it an important element in psychological therapies and physical treatments.
2015年3月，威廉·福德·汤普森(William Forde Thompson)和戈特弗里德·施劳格(Gottfried Schlaug)在《科学美国人》(Scientific America)杂志上发表了一篇名为《音乐的治愈力量》(the Healing Power of Music)的文章。虽然音乐传统上被认为是一种艺术形式，很少与治疗联系在一起，但不同的文化已经把它融入到治疗过程中。音乐与心理学之间的联系主要通过四个方面来建立。首先，音乐的社会性和情感性使其成为语言的完美替代品。其次，音乐对病人的影响往往难以量化，但长期影响是可见的。第三，越来越多的人强调音乐在治疗中的重要性，音乐在很多场合都得到了成功的应用。最后，音乐在治疗痴呆和自闭症方面显示出了巨大的潜力。虽然音乐的影响可能是微妙的和不可检测的，科学家们正在努力量化音乐的影响，使其成为心理治疗和物理治疗的重要元素。
The healing powers of music is especially important when the patient has lost the ability of verbal communication. Music can transform the state of the patients from isolation to communication with cultural and community influences (Moreno, 2004). Under such circumstances, music is not only one form of communication, but the only one, serving as a bridge between the patient and the outside world. Many patients suffering from severe brain damages, making it difficult for them to communicate effectively due to the loss of the ability to make meaningful sounds (Thompson & Schlaug, 2015). However, many of these patients still possess the ability to sing. A treatment called melody therapy is thus invented so that singing becomes the way patients express themselves. Although blood is not able to reach the area in the brain where language is controlled, the area of music is in a separate area, making it possible to bypass the damaged part of the brain. It is crucial that music can take the place of language so that the patient is able to communicate with the outside world in a new way. Many case studies have proven that the melody therapy is indeed effective in restoring brain functions. With deeper understanding of the different types of patients and the brain damages they suffer from, the therapists are able to make personalized treatment plans for individuals. Although the outcome of the therapy is to make up for the loss of linguistic abilities of the patient, such treatments are more significant in reconstruction of the mental world of the patient.#p#分页标题#e#
The correlation between music and psychology has had a long history. Both music hearing and music making can play an important role in the heling of the mind and the body. In the wall paintings in Egypt from thousands of years ago, music is used as the means to increase the fertility rate of women (Thompson & Schlaug, 2015). In the jungles of Peru, chanting is used as a main way of treatment by the Buddhists. In the tribes of Ghana, drum beats are often used in the process of the therapy. It can be seen that music has been incorporated as an effective element of physical treatment in different cultures around the globe, which cannot be a coincidence. Although it is difficult to understand how music can have physical effects, scientists are only beginning to discover the influence of music on the mind, and mind over body. The effect of music in such treatment are described by the authors in a subtle yet intriguing way. As the definition of music is not confined, it can be expressed in multiple forms and each can be effective in its own way. In addition, it is also the intrinsic nature of music to carry emotional and social traits, which means that music is much more than just sounds. In fact, music is able to generate emotional responses more effectively than any other form of art. Moreover, it hardly has any side effects, making it possible for long term treatment.
Although music is a form of art and not perceived to be in association with psychology and neuroscience, the authors of the article has distinctly announced music and singing to be the “cure”. According to the observations made by neuroscientists and therapists, many of the patients with stroke are not able to speak but can sing without difficult, which means that they are not suffering from blood flow problems in the brain (Thompson & Schlaug, 2015). Therapists thus developed a treatment methods featuring singing. They encouraged patients (retired and injured soldiers) to make simple melodies with a couple of words and phrases, and tapping the rhythm of the melody with their fingers. Beginning with short and simple melodic phrases, patients are able to sing longer and more complicated tunes as the treatment progressed, which would be much more difficult without the help of music. It is also observed that the right brain has taken on most of the processing work when it comes to singing and making a melody. Traditionally, it is the left brain that is mostly responsible for language and logic, and the right brain responsible for senses and emotions. Although not naturally designated for the task, the right hemisphere is doing well in substituting for the communication functions. There have been successful cases for the melody therapy, especially for stroke patients. Through years of training, patients who were not able to speak initially can communicate in short sentences.
In addition, music is also the most effective form of stimulation for dementia patients. Compared to other form of stimulations, music is the most versatile with the least amount of risks for the patient (Thompson & Schlaug, 2015). Since music works on several parts of the brain through stimulations, the memories of music are most likely to survive from accidents and diseases. Even faces with the diminished senses, patients are still likely to respond emotionally to music stimulations. Different from other forms of therapies, patients can play either the passive or the active role in music therapy. From listening, to dancing, clapping and singing, patients benefit from the gradual process of treatment. The selection of music is also important since it represent the identity and life experiences of the patient. As the music therapy begins, patients are not only encouraged to interact with other people, but also enjoy better quality of sleep so that their mental health is indirectly improved. The influence of music is also fascinating when it comes to autism. Most of the patients suffering from autism are young boys, with limited vocabulary and ability to communicate both verbally and nonverbally. According to Reschke-Hernández (2011), however, autism also contribute to the specialization effect of development in a certain area of the brain, making many of the children exceptionally talented in one area, such as music. Among these children, many possess the ability to identify any note they hear (absolute pitch). The positive response to music thus become the entrance of therapy for them, helping them socialize and communicate with others through music. Other linguistic, social and sports abilities can be developed naturally following the therapies. It is also helpful to understanding what they are thinking through the music they produce, which again becomes a form of communication.#p#分页标题#e#
In conclusion, although music is not traditionally perceived as a treatment method, it is more deeply rooted in human history and culture than expected. The thousands of years of development and integration has made music a crucial element for the life of human beings. For any new method of treatment, adequate proof would be necessary for public recognition and further investment. From the effects of music therapy observed so far, it is believed that people are only beginning to uncover the potential of music to help heal the brain and reconstruct the mental world of the patients.
Moreno, J. (2004). Contemporary Voices in Music Therapy: Communication, Culture, and Community. Music Therapy Perspectives, 22(1), 62-64. doi:10.1093/mtp/22.1.62
Reschke-Hernández, A. E. (2011). History of Music Therapy Treatment Interventions for Children with Autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 48(2), 169-207. doi:10.1093/jmt/48.2.169
Thompson, W. & Schlaug, G. (March 2015). The Healing Power of Music. Scientific American Mind, Volume 26, Issue 2.