This chapter outlines the research methodology of this study. First of all, the online survey is developed based on the social commerce conceptual framework for design. It follows by sampling frame and sampling strategy which discuss how to get the correct and precise sample in the study. Then, research instrument will be described. After that, researcher explains on the data collection method and data analysis. The purpose of this research is to the effects of Social Commerce Collaboration toward revenue, social recognition, social presence and communication strategy.
3.2 Research Design
According to Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill (2011), research design refers to the plan or framework for obtaining answer for research questions. It helps to provide a guideline in data collection and data analyze of the research. Quantitative approach, qualitative approach and mixed method approach which applied in social science research are the three research methods that stated by Creswell (2013). Furthermore, there are two way to conducting the research which included quantitative and qualitative research.
Creswell (2013) stated that, experimental design and non-experimental design like survey or questionnaire are the two common strategy that used. Researcher chooses to use online survey method which use questionnaire due to time and cost constraint for experimental design. Moreover, research questions can be answered by using quantitative research which researcher select a sample or subgroup, such as seller in Instagram to ask them question related to the research.
Most of the present study used quantitative research. However, there are no know research done on this topic. Therefore, research have modified and adopted questions from similar topic, such as online shopping and website’s questionnaire to exanimate the effects of social commerce collaboration in Instagram.
3.3 Population of the study
Since the context of the study is focus on individual seller on Instagram, therefore Malaysia’s seller on Instagram will be the target population. Based on the previous studies, most of the research are done base on the customer perspective. However, in this research will use sellers on Instagram as target respondent. Due to the absent of sampling frame, it is not possible for researcher to use probability sampling technique. There are limitation of find out the exact seller on Instagram in Malaysia, due to the reason that followers does not consider sellers.#p#分页标题#e#
3.4 Sampling Procedure / Technique
Sample represent portion of a population Saunders et al. (2011). In this study, non-probability sampling techniques are adopted by researcher due to the time, budget and workforce. The respondents will be chosen by the purposive judgmental of the researcher. Which respondents must be the seller who sell products and service on Instagram in Malaysia. The researcher will applied non-probability, such as judgmental and snowball sampling.
The researcher will use the ‘Explore’ feature to search of Instagram online shop’s sellers. Besides that, the researcher may get advice from the friends and family who have purchase experience in Instagram to recommend. This technique is consider easiest, cheapest and least time consuming. In addition, Snowball sampling is easier to researcher because the researcher doesn’t need to approach one by one or search one by one. Through the first respondents, the researcher able to identify the next potential respondents who meets the requirement of the research.
3.5 Sample Size
There are limitation information to find number of the sellers of Instagram in Malaysia. However, researcher able to identified the average number on the similar journal which examined on social commerce. Therefore, sample size for this study will be 250 respondents which taken from the total average of below five research.
Besides that, 250 samples size are sufficient to analysis the data (Hair, Tatham, Anderson, & Black, 2006). In addition, 50 out of 250 samples are served as buffer. 50 samples will be used to anticipate any possible errors like missing value or unclear responses.
3.6 Data Collection
Researcher needs to collect primary data through online- based questionnaire. The online questionnaire will be send to respondents who are the sellers which are selling products or service on Instagram in Malaysia. A total of 250 questionnaires will be send out and will be collected back in one week.
3.7 Research Instrument
According to Sekaran & Bougie (2009), questionnaire is an effective data collection tools. The questionnaire of this research is list on the Appendix. Online questionnaire will be using due to the targets are online sellers. The questionnaire was designed and modified based on previous journal which related to social commerce. All questions in the questionnaire will be measured based on 5 point Likert scale, such as 5= Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3= Neutral, 2= Disagree, and 1= Strongly disagree (Moosmayer & Fuljahn, 2010; Ross et al., 1992). Under the particular variable, Likert scale will eliminate the variable based on the overall score as per responses of respondents to all items.#p#分页标题#e#
3.7.1 Social Commerce Collaboration on Instagram
There are 5 item scale modified from C-commerce adoption level of Chong, Lin, Ooi & Muraili (2009). Collaborative commerce (c-commerce) adoption was eliminated and determinants the emphasis on Electrical and Electronic. Furthermore, the previous questionnaires were sent to 400 organization. Therefore, 5 items and measured by using 5-point Likert scale are modified and adopt as below:
I am aware of the collaboration opportunity in Instagram.
I share my products’ information with my collaboration partner in Instagram.
My collaboration partner often ‘like’ my posted.
My number of followers increase after the collaboration.
I am very likely to help my competitors in Instagram.
Revenue models of social networking sites was tested in the research of Enders, Hungenberg, Denker & Mauch (2008). Number of user, trust, and willingness to pay are three of the variable tested in the research. Therefore, 5 items and measured by using 5-point Likert scale are modified and adopt as below:
I can generate more revenue through collaboration with others.
Through the collaboration, the increase number of followers on Instagram increase my revenue.
Followers in my collaboration partner on Instagram willing to purchase my products or service.
The follower in my collaboration partner trust my products and service.
The customer will compare both of me and my collaboration partner products’ price.
3.7.3 Social Recognition
The questions below are adopt and mortified from modified from (Huang & Benyoucef, 2013), (Yadav, De Valck, Hennig, Hoffman & Spann, 2013), and (Helm, Möller, Mauroner & Conrad, 2013). According to Huang and Benyoucef (2013), in the e-commerce design, recognition better than recall. Therefore, the relationship between social commerce collaboration and social recognition will be eliminated in below modified questions:
More customer engage with my Instagram after they saw the positive recommendation from others’ Instagram
Others’ appreciation is really important to me
Collaboration can increase awareness on both of our products and service
My followers including collaboration partners tag me in their posts
Through collaboration with others, I sometimes experience that my work is not appreciated although I do my best
3.7.4 Social Presence
The 5 item additional scale questions are modified from (Gefen, & Straub, 2004) to eximinate the social presence in collaboration on Instagram. The original questions was eliminated on sense of personalness, sense of sociability, a sense of human warmth, sense of human sensitivity. Therefore, it is hard to measure by the sellers themselves. Therefore, the relationship between social commerce collaboration and social presence will be eliminated in below modified questions:#p#分页标题#e#
I do not doubt the honesty of my collaboration partner
I use Hashtag to target my customers on Instagram.
I use Hashtag to increase my visibility on Instagram
I visit others Instagram and likes their posts
I visit others Instagram and posts comments
According to Kietzmann (2011), stated that communication is the main goal of social media. The statement is supported by Almeida (2009) who claim that self-presence, knowledge sharing, idea exchange, conversation and collaboration are the main propose of the used of users in social networks. Therefore, 10 item scale which consists of content presentation, topic focus, notification, content creation and information sharing will adopted to below questions:
I often ‘follow’ others business.
I will ‘follow’ my follower if they are selling products on Instagram.
My collaborators will help me promote my products and service.
My collaboration partner will give me comment on my products and service.
We will Hashtag each other Facebook while post picture on Instagram.
3.8 Pre-Testing of the instrument
Pilot test will be conducted in term of comprehensive and content of questionnaire in order to find out grammars error and misunderstand wording to ensure the effectiveness of the instruments. 10 actual respondents are brought in to refine the measuring instruments. One of the function of Pilot test is to give advance warning to the researcher due to the reason that an unclear questionnaire will reach to the fail of a study. The respondents might misunderstand the meaning of the questions. Besides that, the respondents that chosen must be the targeted respondents as well. After the comments give, researcher will amend accordingly.
Type of Analysis
The date which gather will analysis by researcher by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. Descriptive analysis was conducted on Section B to explain the demographic data collected. Besides that, central tendency, mean, standard deviation will used to eliminate the data collected for each measure item. Furthermore, Reliability testing as Cronbach’s Alpha will be used to test the correlated that test how the item correlated reliable. There are reliability level which researcher shall concern. Such as over 0.80 is high reliable, over 0.70 range are acceptable. However, if the reliability test is less that 0.60 are consider to be unreliable. Therefore, the researcher will set the reliability test result must be higher than 0.60. On another hand, the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable will be tested using multiple regression.
In the overview of this chapter, researcher have explained the research methodology used. In general, research design was discussed and quantitative approach was decided. Besides that, it was followed by the population of the study, sampling techniques that used in this study and the data collection. After that, appropriate sample size was justified. Next, research instrument was explained by researcher. Next step, pre-testing was explained as a process to improve questionnaire. Lastly, type of analysis are discussed.#p#分页标题#e#