Organization Needs Leadership To Lead The Workforce
Organization needs leadership to lead the workforce to achieve organizational goal and mission. Leadership Companies is any industry face significant Leadership challenge if they are going o remain viable in a persistently changing World. Scholars define leadership as one as who plans, direct and guiders people towards a common goal. Leder in the organization motivates general employees and desire change towards a preferred goal. Appropriate and dependable leadership is vital to the organization success (Spinelli, 2006). Industry face significant Leadership challenge if they are going o remain viable in a persistently changing World. Scholars define leadership as one as who plans, direct and guiders people towards a common goal.
Lussier & Achua (2004) argues that leadership in organization is producer that influences both employees and leaders to achieve organizational goal through necessary change. Leadership laid important role in management Organizational Change.
Organizational Change is an important issue and within organization. Changes can due to many ways such change in management system, change in accounting system, change in market demand and change in competitors in the market. Organizational is an action or set of an action for the reason of changing the direction or process of the Company's work. In addition, change is a fact of company's life. Due to survive of the organization it has to change the way it works (Pasmore,1994).#p#分页标题#e#
Kotter's model of change includes eight steps to manage change; establish sense of urgency, guiding and the organization, development vision and strategy, communicating strategy and vision to employees, empower broad action, make short term win and control, and produce more change in last anchor new approaches in culture (Kotter, 2002). In Addition Bridge (2003) provided a model called "Three Phases of Transition" in major organizational changing time (Ending/losing/letting go, the neutral zone and the new beginning).
However, for organizational change leadership or company management need to take much major decision. Game theory is very important for taking decision. The value of Game theory's in business depend in allowing structured analysis of difficult multi-player issues including the classification of a business' best achievable outcome, threats and opportunity available to different players and the forecast of the likely actions and reactions of other players. A moment's indication is adequate to convince one that many business choices are made under circumstances of strategic interdependence. For example, the change in the demand for a firm's product when it cuts its price will be different when rivals leave their prices unchanged than when they match the price cut (Binmore, 2007).
Leadership is influential relationship among employees and leaders who intend change and outcomes that imitate their shared goals or purpose an the quality of the effective leadership and fellowship are the same. (Daft, 2005). Spinelli (2006) defines a successful leader as being suitable and accountable. Hesser (1999) states "Leadership has two components part, personal and organizational. Success, overtime, demands knowledge of and commitment both".
However, leading involve people, everybody is leading someone somewhere but the main question is how and where. To be a good leader first one must become good employee of the company. The main base of good leadership is perfect respectable personality and provides selfless service to the companies for its success and only the best leader is able to produce or bring out the best outcome from them (Clark, 1997).
2.1. The main characteristic of Leadership:——领导的主要特点
A vital trait of leadership is using individual talent to generate performance, belief and reliability in employees and the organization (Daft, 2005). Personality of the individual people plays a most important part in the system they lead. Personality is a mixture of traits (distinguishing personal characteristics) that categorize an individual's actions. Personality influences conduct as well as insight and attitudes of the leader. Knowing personalities assist clarify and predict others' behaviour and job performance The Big Five Model of Personality judge whether a person is stronger in urgency, conscientiousness, thoughtfulness, amendment, or openness to experience. (Lussier & Achua, 2004).#p#分页标题#e#
In addition, Kouzes & Posner (2007) stated how credibility is the base of leadership; every person wants to be fully positive in their leaders, and to be fully convinced they have to trust that their leaders are persons of strong character and solid honesty, as well as to be credible in accomplishment, leaders ought to be clear about their thinking; they must recognize what they stand for, also they must do what they speak into practice; they should act on their philosophy and "do". Also, a leader cannot representation the way nor makes possible others to perform if they are not seen as being truthful and reliable. Honesty is seen as the supreme vital characteristic between leaders and employees (Kouzes & Posner, 2007).
2.2. Leadership Important Theory:——领导重要理论
Most Leadership theory belongs to one of the three perspectives; leadership as a process or relationship, leadership as a combination of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as certain behaviours (leadership skills). (Lussier & Achua, 2004). Throughout the year Scholars has developed many leadership theory for a successful leader. However, According to research, the 1040's stated that leaders as maintaining certain traits such as personality character, interpersonal skills an intelligence (Steers, et. al., 1996).
Marquis and Huston (2000) connected the Great Man Trait leadership theory with that of Aristotelian philosophy, which point out those leaders are not made but born. However, the limitation of Trait theory is leaders cannot be developing with education and skills (Murphy, 2005).
On the other hand, contrast to Trait theory, Behavioural methodology on the identified actions made a individual effective leader (Writte, 1996).There is two more theory related to Personal Behaviour Theory discussed in University of Michigan and Ohio State University. One is Job Centered (task) and another one is employees centred (people) The findings about Behavioural theory in the Michigan study point out that leaders who were extremely worker oriented and allowed fostered more productive teams but leaders who were more worried about achieveing tasks produce lower producing teams (Lussier & Achua, 2004).
However, University of Iowa develop on the studies above and found two basic leadership styles; Autocratic Leadership and Democratic Leadership. Research study declare four main Leadership theory; Concern for Task, Concern for People, Directive Leadership and Participative Leadership Wright, 1996).
However, there is another type of Leadership Theory called Transaction Theory. Burns and Bass define transactional theory as, it recognize what individual want from his or her work and tries to see what they get from it; this theory exchange reward and promise reward for effort; and it is awareness to one's self-interests. Transactional theories are divided into three different processes that persuade employees: dynamic management by exclusion, reactive management by exclusion and contingent reward (Murphy, 2005). 2008 Taylor (2009) states that in Transactional theory employees are hel responsible or accountable for their work regardless of resource availability. Therefore, the transactional leadership style is used mainly in companies dominated by command and control procedures (Bass, 1997).#p#分页标题#e#
In Addition, There are other types of Leadership Theory called Transformational Leadership Theory. According Murphy (2005), the transformational leadership theory is concerned with change in organization, he also categories transactional leadership as far sighted, a creative thinker or a mechanism for change that presumes a positive approach to management. This leadership theory can probably turn workforce into leaders and leaders into the companies change agents (Spinelli, 2006).
Therefore, use of transformational leadership is gaining impetus because it is straight in argument with the outdated autocratic unilateral theory of leadership that has been put on employees for many years (Murphy, 2005).
2.3. Leadership Practices and Challenges:——领导行为和挑战
Kouzes and Posner (2008) has identified the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership from a concentrated research project to find out the leadership competencies that are necessary to accomplish extraordinary things done in organizations. Although differences in people's personal stories, their Personal-Best Leadership Experiences exposed the similar patterns of their behaviour. Figure 1 illustrates the five leadership practice.
2.3.1. Model the Way:——模型的方法
In the company Leaders generate principles regarding the way people (peers, colleagues, and customers alike) should be taking care of and the way organizational goal should be achieved. They build standards of excellence as well set a model for others to follow. Leaders set temporary goals so that employees can attain small them as they work toward larger goals or objectives. They untie bureaucracy when it obstructs the action; also they put up indication when employees are uncertain of where to go, how to get there as well they create opportunities for victory. (Kouzes & Posner, 2008).
2.3.2. Inspire a Shared Vision——激发共同愿景
Leaders passionately consider that they can create a difference. They imagine the future, creating a perfect and exclusive picture of what the company can become as well as by leader's charisma and quiet influence; leaders join others in their dreams. They exhale life into their visions and find people to see thrilling possibilities for the future (Kouzes & Posner, 2008).
2.3.3. Challenge the Process——挑战的过程
Leaders look for opportunity to modify the status quo. Also, leader looks for new and innovative ways to advance the business. In doing so, they conduct experiment and risks. However, leaders know that risk taking engage mistakes and failures but they accept the foreseeable disappointments as learning opportunities (Kouzes & Posner, 2008).#p#分页标题#e#
2.3.4. Enable Others to Act——指使他人行为
Leaders promote cooperation and make spirited teams. They energetically engage others. Leaders appreciate that mutual respect is what uphold extraordinary efforts; they go all-out to make an impression of faith and human dignity. In addition, they strengthen others and make every single person feel able and powerful (Kouzes & Posner, 2008).
2.3.5. Encourage the Heart——鼓励的心
Achieveing extraordinary things in company are hard work. To keep optimism and purpose alive, leaders identify contributions that every employee makes. In every winning team, the associates require to share the rewards of their efforts, so leaders commemorate accomplishments. Leaders make people feel like heroes (Kouzes & Posner, 2008).
Figure 1: Practice of Leadership
Leadership faces many challenges in everyday activities. However, the main challenges of leadership are given below (Kouzes & Posner, 2008):
To discover own leadership strong point and areas to progress.
Converse their basic values and beliefs to others.
Spotlight people's hard work on key values from side to side their own actions.
State their reflection of the future and to motivate others to allocate a common vision.
To Search for prospect to take the risks needed for future growth.
To Build cooperation, teamwork, and faith among employees,
Lack of Strengthen and capability of others to shine.
To distinguish the accomplishments of others.
3.1. Organizational Change:——组织变革
Organizational Change is an important issue and within organization. Changes can due to many ways such change in management system, change in accounting system, change in market demand and change in competitors in the market. Organizational is an action or set of an action for the reason of changing the direction or process of the Company's work. In addition, change is a fact of company's life. Due to survive of the organization it has to change the way it works (Pasmore,1994),
Change in organization may affect the business strategy of the organization, and the process companies carry out to accomplish that strategy and the workforce engage. Generally, some change are small does not affect organizations main strategy but some change is the reason of organization transformation (Wilson & Sowden, 1999).#p#分页标题#e#
However, well panned and implemented change ensures organizational survival in modern day's competitive market. Change can produce many benefits for the organization such improved and better competitiveness, better financial performance, satisfied employees and higher level of customer. Benefit may take long time to achieve and period of transition is time of disturbance uncertainty. Thought, change is not always positive but it can be handle such a way that strength than weaken the commitment of the people to an organization (Pasmore,1994),
Therefore, change process of the organization must be managed in order to keep the company moving towards its new vision and its stated objective. Also, organizational change actually is about people changing. So the change must be began with concern fo its impact on the workforce of the organization. However, change is the part of organizational development process; it is an ongoing and bring strength to the company for future success. I addition, organization generally bring change for response to external environment such social, legal, economic, political and technological factors (Lisa and Brain, 1997).
3.2. Change Management:——变更管理
Change management is structural approach to transitioning person, teams and organization from a existing state to needed future level to achieve or execute a vision or strategy. Change is an organizational procedure aimed to employees to acknowledge and clinch change in their current environment (Lisa and Brain, 1997).
However, Change management can be define in three ways firstly, Change management as a systematic process; is the formal process for the organizational change, consist a systematic approach and knowledge. Second, Change management as means transitioning people; it is a critical part of a project that leads, manage and enable people to accept new process, system, technologies and value and it is a set of activities what transit people from their current way of working to the desired way of working. Finally, Change Management as Competitive Tactic; it is a continuous process of aligning an organization with its marketplace and doing so more responsively and effectively than competitors (Lisa et. al., 1997).
3.3. Common Obstacles to Chang and Reason of Change Fail:——改变失败的常见障碍
A 2006 Harvard Business review found out that 66% of change scheme does not achieve their desired company outcomes. They have identified five most common reason or obstacles to change such as Employees resistance, communication breakdown, insufficient time devoted to training, staff turnover during transition process and cost exceeded the budget. From five only three can be improve by the change leader; Employees resistance, communication breakdown and staff turnover during transition. Table 1 presented the overview of the leadership role in terms of obstacles.#p#分页标题#e#
â€¢ Leverage relationship with team to address employee concerns on a personal level.
â€¢ Ask for employee's feedback and react to their concerns honestly and openly.
â€¢ Review the section on Managing Change in this guide.
â€¢ Communicate main information to employees on an on-going and regular basis.
â€¢ Review the section on Communication in this guide.
â€¢ Connect team by involving them in the initiative.
â€¢ Coach, Mentor and enrich their roles.
Kotter (1995) states following Eight Errors common to organizational change efforts and the consequences three consequences;
Error 1: Allowing too much contentment or complacency
Error 2: Failing to gain leadership support
Error 3: Underestimate the supremacy of vision
Error 4: Under communicating with the vision
Error 5: Allowing obstacles to block the vision
Error 6: Failing to build short term win
Error 7: Declining victory too soon
Error 8: Neglecting to anchor change firmly in the culture
Consequences 1: New business strategy not implement well
Consequences 2: Reengineering takes too long time
Consequences 3: Quality program do not bring hope for result
3.4. Change Management Model:——变更管理模式
There are many models available to help lead change. The main common and used model of change management is Kotter's Eight Steps of change management. This model of change management given below (Kotter, 2002):
Step 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency
First step of the change management is help other to understand the need for change and act immediately, Do SOWT analysis to identify competitive realities and then identify and discuses possible dangers. (Kotter, 2002).
Step 2: Creating and the Guiding Coalition
Second step of Kotter's model is to make sure there is powerful group leading the change, individual with leadership skill, credibility, bias for action, authority and analytical skill, then build a team and forming influential guiding union and getting the team to work together for a common goal (Kotter, 2002).#p#分页标题#e#
Step 3: Developing a Vision and Strategy
The third step is to explain how the future will be unlike from the past, and how you will build the future realism, creating a vision to help direct the change effort, getting the vision and strategy right and developing strategies to accomplish the vision (Kotter, 2002).
Step 4: Communicating the Change and Vision
To make sure that the as many as employees understand and accept the vision and strategy arise from change, a sound communication is needed between leadership and workforce to communicate vision and strategy (Kotter, 2002).
Step 5: Empower Broad-based action:
The fifth stage is to remove as many as barriers possible than it is easy to make a vision into reality. This step help to allow to act getting rid of obstacles and encourage risk taking and modify structure or system that undermine the change vision (Kotter, 2002).
Step 6: Generation Sort-term wins
Sit step is to create visible unambiguous success and plan for generate short term achievements and achieved them then recognise and reward those employees (Kotter, 2002).
Step 7: Consolidating gain and Produce more Change
Seventh stage is to press faster and harder after the short term achievements, adjust improvements and sustain the momentum for change. Also, Use increasing integrity to change all systems, structures and policies that don't go well together and don't fit the transformation attempt, Hiring, promoting and developing individual who can realize the change vision, reinvigorating the procedure with new change agents, them and project (Kotter, 2002).
Step 8: Anchoring new Approaches in the Culture
The final step of change management mode, is anchoring new approaches in the culture by grasp on to the new customs of behaving, and make sure they be successful until they become a part of the culture of the group, building better performance through productivity and consumer oriented behaviour, additional and better leadership, and better effective management , communicative the connections between new behaviours and organisational success and developing means to make sure leadership improvement and (Kotter, 2002).
3.5. Managing the Emotion in Change:——管理情感的变化
There are many models to guide thinking on how people cope with the emotion cycle of change. Bridges (2003), has provide a model showing how people react in the time of change. He has divided Transition time in three phases (Figure 4); letting go/losing/ending of the present position, a disorienting or neutral zone and a new beginning.#p#分页标题#e#
Figure 4: Bridges' Three Phases of Transition (Bridges, 2003)
This model transition mode reviews the emotional impact over time and the leader's role in change management. He distinguished difference between change and transition. Transition deals with only psychological impact of the individual but one the other hand change is situational and may happen without the people (Bridges, 2003).
Phase 1: Ending/Losing/Letting Go
In the first phase (ending/losing/letting go), workforce of the company must come to a point where they can let go of the past situation because until they let go they will not able to move on towards future. Possible reaction from employees might be; fear, resentment, apathy, loss and sense of shock. In this phase leader must identify what individual will losing and accept individual's reaction and find a way to compensate (Bridges, 2003).
Phase 2: The Neutral Zone
Second phase is the Neutral zone, where employees are in gap between past and new. In this position old system does not work and new yet to launch. Possible reaction from individual might be anxiety; motivation level comes to low; confusion; but have some hope for future (Bridges, 2003).
Phase 3: The New Beginning
Final phase is the New Beginning phase; here employees start to show emotional commitment for the new state. Possible reaction might be; new identity, new energy and sense of purpose. In this phase leader must explain the new beginning, continuous communication the vision, develop a new training plan and give opportunity to the employees to play a part in transition process (Bridges, 2003).
3.6. Leadership Role in Change Management Process:——领导角色变化管理流程
Successful organizational change depends on leaders of the change project who have direct authority with employees going through the change. The following are some of the major roles leaders may play as they drive change in the company;
Leader must be the role model of the team working for the change transition. Leader must be willing to go first and lead the fellow workers in the process. Leader must be self aware and deliberate (Kotter, 2003).
Leader is a decision maker. Leader control resources such as, workforce, budget, and equipment available for transition period of change and have full authority to make decision how to handle them. During change, leaders must control their decision-making authority and choose the preference that will support the project. The Decision-Maker is influential and gives priorities that support change (Kotter, 2003).
Leader is a motivator to the employees. Leader gives motivation for the change to happen. Leaders create an image importance about change and show commitment and passion to get things done (Kotter, 2003).#p#分页标题#e#
Leader is an enforcer in change management. Leader hold individual accountable for the change with authority. Perfect leader understand that change will not happen if they do not fulfil the roles the authority can do (Kotter, 2003).
4.1 Game Theory:——博弈论
Game theory s is a division of applied mathematics and economics the studies strategic situation of situation where there are different stakeholders with different goal and ones action can affect another one. It has been applied in Military strategy for a long time though game theory reveals its card-game origins throughout its name and terminology. For example, in a game in any situation, multiple players can influence the outcome of the game; a player is a stakeholder in the game, In general, the importance of game theory lies in understanding the communications and likely outcomes when the end result is reliant on the actions of others who have possibility conflicting purpose (Fraser & Hiple, 1984).
The value of Game theory's in business depend in allowing structured analysis of difficult multi-player issues including the classification of a business' best achievable outcome, threats and opportunity available to different players and the forecast of the likely actions and reactions of other players. A moment's indication is adequate to convince one that many business choices are made under circumstances of strategic interdependence. For example, the change in the demand for a firm's product when it cuts its price will be different when rivals leave their prices unchanged than when they match the price cut (Binmore, 2007).
Though, Game theory can be understood without the use of mathematics. What is crucial about game theory, though, is the idea of strategic interdependence: game theory deals with situations in which the outcome of a choice made depends on the actions of other participants in the 'game'. Generally a Games Theory consists of three components; A set of player, a set of available for each player and setoff payoffs to each player for each possible outcomes (Fraser & Hiple, 1984).
4.2. Types of Game Theory:——博弈论的类型
The philosophy of game theory and the games that appear as a result of the principles are very interesting and can help us think of different ways of interacting with the individual around us So, how can project and program professionals take advantage of the game theory principles in our work? I propose that every engagement with or stakeholders is an opportunity to utilize these principles. There are many different types of games, some are of them are given below:
Cooperative or non-cooperative Games#p#分页标题#e#
A game is cooperative when or if the players are capable to form binding obligations. For example the legal system needs them to stick to their promises. On the other hand, in non-cooperative games this is not possible. From the two types of games, non-cooperative games are capable to representation situations to the finest details for producing perfect results Binmore, 2007).
However, to predict the result of this game, it is very important to judge how the companies handle their strategic interdependence. There are two different approaches to handle interdependence. Fist one is to assume that each companies maximize its profit, uncertain expectation about how some other may be take action, and without association. This game theory is non co-operative. But on the other hand when the companies collaborate with each, and make agreement about their strategic choice is called co-operative game theory. However, the solution for non co-operative theory is dominant strategy. Dominant strategy of the player or companies offers higher payoffs than any other choose by the competitor Binmore, 2007).
Symmetric and asymmetric Games
Symmetric game is a game where the payoffs for playing a certain strategy depending only on the other strategies employed rather than who is playing them. If it is possible to change the identity of the player without modify the strategy that the game is systematic Binmore, 2007).
The total benefit to the all players in the game for each combination of strategy use always adds to zero, in another word; only player can benefited by the equal expense of other Binmore, 2007).
Simultaneous and Sequential Games
In simultaneous games both players move simultaneously, or if they do not move at the same time, the later players are unconscious of the earlier players' actions (making them effectively simultaneous). Simultaneous games must be handling differently due to immediate apparent nature of the games. There is no necessary last move in simulation games. On the other hand, Sequential games are slightly different than simulation games; these game later players have some knowledge about earlier player's action (Dixit, 1997).
In Business games it is rarely that decisions are made by the companies precisely at the same point in time by all relevant companies. However, in business frequently companies select option before they know the option their competitor has selected. In addition, many business selections are most excellent analysed as taking place within the structure of simultaneous games. Generally most actual games most likely unite elements of both simultaneous and sequential move games (Dixit, 1997).
4.3. Application of Game Theory in Business——博弈论在企业中的应用#p#分页标题#e#
Game theory with its spotlight on the connections of multiple players, each try to maximize their own rewards, is a ordinary fit for many types of business problem. Game theory can be use from competitive pricing to labour negation, game theory provides a perfect structure to analyze the set of potential strategies and advocate an optimal strategy for the business or each player (Dixit, 1997).
However, business decisions in real have important complications that are frequently ignored by abstract, academic game theory. Because of, real business decisions nearly always have various players; it is a challenge for classical game theory. Second, the relationships among the players can be complex. For example, business problems are usually mixed object games in which the players have some ordinary interests and some different ones. Third, sometimes business result is not easy to lessen to a ordinary measure for value such as dollars or expected utility (Dixit, 1997).
Niall Fraser (1998) has studied that how threats can constrain players and produce stable result in multiplier games. From Dr. Fraser research, Open Option has developed an exclusive method and proprietary software tools to analysis multiple and complex business issue. In game theory terminology, Open Options uses nonzero-sum, non-cooperative , non-simultaneous, asymmetric, and ordinal game theory for their application. This permits the modelling of very difficult issues and involved many players with individual goals and multiple diverse options (Binmore, 2007). Every, business issue is form as a single encounter over the particular time frame specified, rather than many repeated games, but does not presume players act simultaneously or without the knowledge of other players' actions.
Leadership is prominent relationship among workforce and leaders, leaders share goals same purpose with the employees. The main character of leadership is good personality and honesty. There are many leadership theories but mostly they belong in the category of leadership as a process or relationship, leadership as a combination of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as certain behaviours (leadership skills). Leadership face many challenge in practice but a strong leader overcome them and lead the group in success.
However, Change in companies is important issue. can due to many ways such change in management system, change in accounting system, change in market demand and change in competitors in the market. Organizational is an action or set of an action for the reason of changing the direction or process of the Company's work. In addition, change is a fact of company's life. Due to survive of the organization it has to change the way it works
Although Game theory principles are simple but application is more than difficult. Information and Communication is very important in game theory. Game theory can be use to threat, promise and commitment. However, in recent days for decision making game theory is very important for the management of the organization.