本文主要是关于跨文化的智慧。在一个段的第一句表明，人们用不同的文化有不同的标识和有关情报的想法。因此可以得出结论，该文本的目的，是通过使研究来比较具有不同文化的人们之间的差异。在本文中，认知风格，已经开发了东亚和西方文化介绍。The text belongs to research paper, and its title gives a brief introduction to the overall text, which is retrieved from Intelligence across cultures. It can be easily understood that the text is mainly about the intelligence across culture. The first sentence in Paragraph A shows that people with different culture have different identifications and ideas about intelligence. So it can be concluded that the purpose of the text is to compare the difference between the people with different culture by making research. In this text, that cognitive styles have been developed in East Asian and Western cultures is introduced.
The style of the text is written in formal format as academic text. The text is in a scientific way of thinking and draws scientific conclusions in the end. And there are a few pronouns in the whole text. In addition, respecting the structure of the text, it is very clear and well-organized. Also, the language of text is concise in general.
(ii) What are some key language elements of the text?（二）什么是文本中的一些关键语言元素？
The text is aimed at giving an exact description of the different views of intelligence across culture. Studies are made to analysis of the phenomenon. The study made by Richard Nesbitt of the University of Michigan (paragraph B) and another study made by Sternberg and Grogorenko all strongly support the view mentioned in the paper. And the use of modals in the text is vial for the fluency. In the paragraph D of text, can is used for recommendations (academic intelligence can develop…). In addition, passive tend often occurs in academic papers. In the academic articles, most of the sentences are called passive sentences, because the author wants to treat issues objectively, instead of putting emphasis on the body of the behaviors.
有很多信号词，如，认知，智力等。智能的观点对认知能力产生重要影响。测试可以采用制定缺乏文化偏见。(iii) What pattern(s) of organization can you see in the text (eg listing, sequence, comparison/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, extended definition)? What signal words can you find?
To be exact, the main pattern of organization is comparison as a whole. Usually, the comparison text would choose different targets according to the demands of topic. And then, a detailed research scope will be made and applied to the targets. Then all the resources and data will be collected to analysis situation. Finally, a conclusion can be reached. The process is mainly as above. In terms of the text, view of intelligence of culture, they choose different communities as targets from Asia to Africa. It is obvious that different people have different opinions about the intelligence, especially in different areas.
There are many signal words, such as, cognitive, intelligence and so on. The view of intelligence has an important impact on the cognitive ability. A test can be adopted to develop the absence of cultural bias.
(iv) What makes the text cohesive and coherent?（四）是什么让文字连贯一致的？
The debate of cohesion and coherence last for decade. But now, there are still many linguists who overemphasize the function of nonstructural cohesion devices.
Cohesion originally appeared in discourse analysis a basic term, which is regarded as a vital issue. As a matter of fact, cohesion is expressed partly by vocabulary and grammar. Therefore, it can be divided into 2 parts: lexical cohesion and grammatical cohesion. The text begins with a introduction of the topic in paragraph A. paragraph focus on that people in western cultures regard intelligence as a means for individuals. From paragraph C to Paragraph D, the studies are discussed in a scientific way. The last paragraph mainly talks about the solution to the dilemma.
In terms of coherence, a text is coherent in two aspects: it is coherent with respect to the situation context and therefore consistent in text. Fries (1983) &Danes (1974) abstracted several patterns of Thematic Progression which could be adopted to explain whether a text is coherent or not. In addition, cohesion combines ideas with sentences.
In general, a text normally has register consistency, and it should fit a given set of features of situation. The text contains some degree of coherence in the actual meaning not only in the content but also in total selection from the semantic resources of the language. For example, the values and concepts are replaced (paragraph A) by cognition.
In all, the text is a reasonably formal example of research paper written to introduce the views of intelligence across culture, which is organized around a central thesis and uses insights based on the research. In the text, there are descriptive adequacy and explanatory adequacy to analysis the issues. In addition, author makes full use of modals, passive tend and so on in the text. When people write some kind of paper next time, they should understand the type of paper and apply techniques to the paper.