1 Introduction 简介
Human resource management is process of management of people working in any company or organization. There is another term used instead of human resource management is personnel management
All the human resource management models emphasizes on following important things:
searching new ways of working
role of manager in change making
managing the activities of employees
Human working capital is very important for success of the businesses especially in service sectors. Human resources are one of major costs part for any business, they always play very important role in development which path company is adopting for success in business. Correct and efficient management of resources and their utilization is necessary for success of all businesses.
Practitioners of human resource management have developed a modern view related to work management rather than previously set of traditional philosophy.
In current competitive business world that is always dynamic organizations have to keep them advance with the pace of development in this changing environment. The division of work inside organization aimed at completing tasks on time. Among all of the important organizational departments is the department of human resource management. According to some experts organizational success basically depends on the success of human resource department. This department has lot of value inside the organization. Human resource management is well set, properly designed and rational approach to any of the management work that contributes to the achievement of set business objectives. In all organizations human resource people have various functions.#p#分页标题#e#
In companies department of human resource play a crucial role as they are responsible for dealing with diversity of staff. Starting from the recruitment identification process to the identification of the benefits that each employee can bring to the organization, with a proper planning for this achievement. There is always a way that ensures functions of human resources will be different for different organizations according to the needs of that organization. The people in human resource always have the focus and responsibility to improve the performance of the employee. Mainly the staffing is a vital step related to this process, but results and outcome lies in performance management. This is directly result of internal control of the Human Resources to make more of the workforce. Human Resources Department mostly tries its good efforts to give benefits to employees cause it wants them to perform well with higher satisfaction, according to their job description. Improvement in the staff performance comes through a systematic approach adopted by human resource people.
Current assignment will study the concept of human resource management, main responsibilities of the department, problems and issues faced by this department, workers incentive and appraisal, diverse approaches related to human resource management, and idea and administration of any change in origination. We also will try to find that how walmart making progress in current competitive business environment while managing all its Human Resources effectively to bring desired success. What are some critical features of walmart policy and strategy for its human resource management.
2 History of Walmart 沃尔玛的历史
Date of Wal-Mart
Most people know that most popular discount retailers started in 1962, K-Mart, flat and Wal-Mart opened its first store. (Company, 2010) actually started by Sam Walton of this work during the intense competition of the 1950s many of the regional discount stores. Before making the opening of its company Sam went to most of the parts of country to learn things about the discount retail business. He successfully convinced American consumers that he got the idea for a new and compared to the old. With confidence and vision, Sam with his wife Helen started the development of a major stake in the first store in Rogers, Kmart has expanded rapidly in the 1960s, while Sam was to get sufficient money for the development of 15 stores of Wal-Mart. In 1972, business shares were offered to public in the New York. With this combination of money, the company made growth in business established its stores in 11 countries with number of 276 stores by the end of its first decade. In 1983, opened its first store Sam Club Members Gallery. The early Supercenter was opened by 1988, featuring grocery store and other 36 departments for general merchandise. By 1989, there were 1402 Wal-Mart Stores 0.123 Sam Club sites. Increased ten-fold work. Its sales grown to $ 26 billion from one billion dollar. (Milner, 2005) Today it have stores and sites numbered 8747 in more than 15 countries of the world that have 2.1 million Associates and provides service to at least 176 million customers in a year time.#p#分页标题#e#
3 Concept of Human Resources Management 人力资源管理理念
Human resource management Can be defined as "the sum of all these activities that are associated with management of staff and their relationship within the company."
"And continue operations in the management of people and organizations in any way to achieve their goals and objectives."
While an agent (2007) is defined as "all the decisions and strategies and the factors managers processes and practices, functions, activities and methods for the management of the peoples who work as employees in any organization. So, human resources management is essentially a study as well as management in any organization that stands on the ideas and techniques to improve the status of employee motivation, efficiency and performance.
Based on the idea of managing people to believe that the staff is very important for the specific business and its continued success. The organization can gain a competitive advantage only by using its staff effectively, drawing plans on the basis of their expertise and skills in order to achieve well-defined objectives. In organizations, and human resources departments play a crucial role as they are responsible for dealing with diverse staff. Of the recruitment process and to identify the benefits that each employee is done through the Department of Human Resources. Could be that the functions of human resources are always different to cover the requirements of organizations, similarly they always focus and take responsibility to improve the performance of the employee. Mainly the process of staffing is very important step for this, but mostly the result lies in performance management. This is linked to internal control by the Department of Human Resources and more of the workforce.
4 Workforce Planning and the difficulties 劳动力规划与困难
Work force planning and preparation of all your options before going into the real work set for the staff to get the organizational goals is very important issue. It is well understood principle that the people are organization's important asset. Because without the capable staff it is difficult for all organizations to reach towards their goals. The bulk of organizational improvement will come only after ensuring that the right staff with the right skills, knowledge and behaviors in the organization. Workforce planning related to achieving this outcome, and any serious link between business planning and development, recruitment and retention, and staff training. Wal-Mart is much concern about this issue, human resources and recruitment system and effective to deal with their needs for this purpose and put the plan always. They announced the vacancy correctly, a pre-assessment before engaging in the selection process. They provide benefits to its employees and facilities in spite of, is blamed for some time to Wal-Mart facilities discrimination and ill-especially low-paid.#p#分页标题#e#
This layout is about the workforce and provides the opportunity to work on long-term thinking about the relevant services in the future, and needs, and explore all viable strategies. Thus, the central planning for company work becomes important for the organizations.
4.1 Employment Requirements
Critical stage in the recruitment of human resources management. It should be well planned and structured so that the organization can recruit the right person for the right place instead of just making the availability of another person at work. There are many of the problems faced during this process and managers for some time and the inability to focus, time and financial resources necessary to make this process effective. Wal-Mart that they always take qualified personnel and according to it, and it makes employees with proper education and skils efficiency.
4.2 Development and Training
Appointment comes after the development and training stage. Most the organizations unfortunately sometimes even for technical jobs do not provide adequate training for their employees before hiring and employment. There must be made sound system which can ensure that the Organization the necessary arrangements to work before and on the job training and development for their employees. The-job training is the main part in the field of human resources at Wal-Mart is now not only offers these courses for their employees, but in times of recession, they offer training courses for some people who are by this time of recession. (Wal-Mart, 2010)
5 Administration of human resources and staff performance 人力资源管理和工作人员业绩
Human resources management are primarily responsible for the employee's performance in business administration (Jones, 2007). To achieve its purposes, which is responsible for dealing with staff from induction to work on and improve their commitment and reduce absenteeism and turnover, and improving skills levels and productivity, and improve the quality and efficiency of its work.
6 Century 20 key ways to manage human resources 20世纪人力资源管理的关键途径
There are some key criteria developed that are in use from the days of the 20 century and developed later by some HR professionals to achieve the highest standards of performance and strongly recommend the organization to follow the rules of these standards for the performance of high-quality employees. These are the best practices, fit this view of resources.
6.1 Best practices
Also called as "high commitment" human resource management to ensure that the realization of the best practices in human resources makes improvement to organizational performance. There are many best practices to keep the advantage using the employees for profits by giving due importance to staff at Wal-Mart.#p#分页标题#e#
These practices are: - 1) job security, (2) recruitment of flour, 3) training and large-scale, 4) the exchange of information, 5) capable teams, 6) also paid a much higher according to the profit and reduce the inequalities in the position of the staff.
6.2 best fit, or approach of emergency
Says that the management of human resources that can perform well when there was a suit involving the required vertical on the performance of human resources management and corporate strategy. There must be a unity between the process closely and human resources and policy with the policy of the foreign company. There are various theories related to vertical integration. For example is life cycle models, that argue in favor of the human resources which according to experts can be easily known in development stage of any organization by its policies and practices that it adopts at development or life cycle process. Some other models of competitive advantage that the idea of Porter on strategic choice. Maps a variety of human resources practices in the organization options for the development of competitive strategy. The third is configurationally models that provide a more accurate assessment depends safe from an organizational strategy to determine the appropriate human resources policies and practices. Wal-Mart is famous for this approach because it is conscious to get the best people to do their job, because they are not many offers, such as previous experiences of the application, it is also strict rules in the second performance evaluations.
Showing 6.3 resources and building
According to some is the basis for modern human resources management, and it focuses mostly on internal organizational resources, and considers how these resources contribute to competitive advantage. And the scarcity of resources is ideal for harmony and human resources management and its central role for the development of human resources organizational value, and this is rare, it is sometimes difficult to replace and organize effectively.
Wal-Mart in the keyword in the field of human resources is a "valid" but the staff who works to meet these goals which are set by organization.
7 Academic theory 学术理论
It is based on the fundamental principle of human beings are not like machines, and therefore any organization needs to have multidisciplinary assessment at their workplace for all staff. Many areas of psychology, for example, sociology, industrial relations, economics, engineering, industrial and monetary theories play an important role and a key. Universities and colleges offer diverse courses in human resources management. Wal-Mart and a good learning approach to build capacity in the area of personnel.
One commonly used way to explain the function of human resources management was developed by Dave Ulrich, which identifies four areas of the role of human resources management:#p#分页标题#e#
collaborator and strategic businessï‚§
As a result of the change agentï‚§
a hero of the staffï‚§
and experts on Administrative.
8 Responsibilities of the Department of Human Resources 人力资源部的职责
Different companies and different departments working within the organization, and these departments including sales management to human resources management.
Human Resources department staff muscles depends on size of staff in company. Job opportunities in this section includes human resources coordinator, human resources and assistant director of human resources management. Can the responsibilities of human resources management as follows: -
1: Human resources management is doing all the planning, advertising, interviewing and selection of staff.
2: Department should know law at all levels from federal, state or provincial and local laws relevant to the work of staff.
3: This section helps companies on training and staff development. Companies train their staff to a variety of reasons, such as motivating staff to learn new things new. The length of hours of time for several weeks, depends on the nature of the exercises. Some time and include safety measures in the workplace. As mentioned by Derek, et al (2004) that "It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all staff."
4: should any private company to use the drive is able to attract staff, skilled and hard work. After the payment of these benefits are shared to keep on encouraging workers for a long time on the functions of the organization. These include the benefits for time of unemployment. Companies offer a variety of benefits, including dental insurance, and vision insurance and payments for a few days off.
8.1 Tasks performed
And human resources in any company that requires kind of management, that involves several steps for this process. They look to achieve all these goals mentioned above. Cannot be performed by each of these activities in human resources management, but some tasks can be outsourced or cannot be performed by these executives, even by other departments. People at Wal-Mart human resources, efficient in their jobs, they provide significant benefits to employees who claim Associates. The following are the main tasks carried out by human resources departments at Wal-Mart: -
Employee induction and orientation to make them on-board
Employee skills of management
Employee proper training
Employee daily base management
Payroll (some companies give this task to the accounts)
Employee benefits management
Planning staff costs
9 Human resources strategy 人力资源战略
when some human resources management and strategy for implementing the tasks set by the department of handling human resources management. Have human resources functions of the Organization include the recruitment and selection policies, and procedures related to disciplinary procedures, policies, rewards and prizes, and human resources plan and policies specific learning and development. But it should be aliened all these regulatory issues in the overall strategy for the business sector. Human resources management strategy and the comprehensive plan, with regard to human resources policy in the implementation process.
Human resources management strategy usually consists of the following factors: -
Wal-Mart always gives priority to the strategies that best fit and best practices, which means there is a link between human resources management strategy and corporate strategy. Encountered some blam critic Wal-Mart to use this strategy against the employee benefits and fair pay, so many times waltmart cases of discrimination against them.
But the people Wal-Mart's efficient in the field of continuous monitoring of the human resources strategy, through the study of the employee, feedback and surveys necessary for the organization.
10 Career Education 职业生涯教育
There are a number of Universities and Colleges to study in the areas of human resources management and related benefits. It was the first Cornell University in the world who started their studies in human resources management and educational administration full. Wal-Mart and good training and education system for workers in the teaching profession and communicate with various projects and sectors that handle these projects in their human resources. There are many new careers at wallmart , which engaged things related to recruitment, employment, recruitment and the interviews done in general, equal opportunities in employment or professional employment organization. Training is conducted regularly with the development of specialization by the trainers.#p#分页标题#e#
11 case studies: critical analysis of the human resources approach Walmart 案例研究：人力资源分析法沃尔玛的批判性分析
Wal-Mart, which is famous for retail in the U.S. A and the top retailers in the U.S. market. Wal-Mart is the rapid growth in the awareness that you make. According to the site Wal-Mart (Company, 2010) Wal-Mart serves customers and members in more than 200 million times a week in more than 8747 retail units under the flags of different countries, 5515. With fiscal 2010 sales of 405 billion dollars, 2.1 million Wal-Mart is working partners all over the world.
Leader in sustainability, charitable companies and jobs, in first place among retailers, Wal-Mart impressive in Fortune magazine as most companies in the survey for the year 2010.
Wal-Mart has the status of these substances can also see that Wal-Mart to buy large quantities of items from its suppliers to create economies of scale, and inventory control with an effective system to assist in making operating costs less than those of its competitors. It is also many goods imported from China, "factory of the world" for its low cost. In the word of the strategy at the level of the company from Wal-Mart, the low cost strategy with a little insulation.
Wal-Mart managers and engage in three levels of strategic planning (Gary Dessler, 2005) in the business, and corporate-level strategic function. As for Wal-Mart, corporate and business level strategy to drive low-cost.
From the perspective of performance management, to Wal-Mart has very high standards and strict job titles. In career management, Wal-Mart and also goes great efforts to reduce costs, and there are many cases that women Su, Wal-Mart to its policy of discrimination against women by systematically denying them promotions and paying them less than men. There are women who have been paid to the departments to lower FEMALE complain about unequal treatment of male colleagues.
From the perspective of compensation management, has also showed Wal-Mart human resources policies and activities of the very aggressive to fit the "low cost" strategy. Wal-Mart imported $ 15 billion worth of goods from China, but also Wal-Mart has some of the factories in China, which branded products with the name of Wal-Mart. We can see just how Wal-Mart's strategy of companies only extensively with integrated human resources policy. Wal-Mart workers in California to earn 31 percent less on average than workers in large retail as a whole. In fact, with other operating costs that put it on the highest level of inventory management, and managers must turn to the storage fees to increase profits, Wal-Mart is expected to reduce labor costs by two-tenths of a year. So, these aggressive policies of human resources, not just more, "the fittest".#p#分页标题#e#
From the viewpoint of the employee and the interest of safety, as well as human resource policies at Wal-Mart, which aligned well with the strategy at the corporate level. Often accused of Wal-Mart failed to provide employees access to affordable health care, but the senior managers and HR managers know their focus was just trying to implement most of the "low cost" strategy.
Wal-Mart strongly against the policy of the Union. It was reported in the United Kingdom's Guardian newspaper that Wal-Mart faces the prospect of a messy legal battle with the messy GMB bruises in a row about the rights of collective bargaining, to the Union does not accept the Wal-Mart has withdrawn its bid to pay 10% to more than 700 workers. (Milner, 2005) and here there may be some doubt as to why Wal-Mart has recently allowed trade unions in their stores in China, where trade unions are required. I tried Wal-Mart in China every possible effort to develop good relations with the Government of China and other groups of influence. So make this the exception of China and Wal-Mart unionizations except in accordance with the overall strategy and human resources strategy. If the company has ignored the rule of the Chinese government, the cost is more than just what would be saved by not allowing the Organization of Trade Unions.
We may evaluate the various human resources practices and systems, Wal-Mart best fit the organization's strategy for competitive companies. Then here is the role of HR managers in this company who are professionals with strategic skills of human resources and other resources needed to build a human-oriented strategy. Human resource managers in one of the technical departments of Wal-Mart, and tried their best to "fit" the company's strategy to reduce the cost low. They made some rules and policies, for example, the implementation of the policy against the Union in its stores to reduce costs from outside the EU, but to assist in the implementation of the "lock in" policies; tried to resist the deficit in the loss of efficiency. Should encourage women to discrimination by giving them a far less chance of money, and workers in fact mentioned in the Wal-Mart has also received a salary much lower compared with the average level of the industry. Try Wal-Mart human resources managers and also to control the conduct of staff and competencies that require the company's strategy through the actions and policies of the company's strategy in support of human resources, some of which may be adduced.
Wal-Mart human resources managers refers to its employees as "partners" and encourages managers to think of themselves as "servant leaders", and this is to encourage them to serve others while staying focused on achieving results in line with the organization's values and integrity. Wal-Mart also faces lawsuits alleging that the company's discrimination against disabled workers, to employ these men intended to provide more facilities for them and lost efficiency to some extent. They also faced charges of child labor. Also charges of discrimination of women. All of these types of human resources policies are not enough compared to international best practices approved by the Department of Human Resources in all good companies. Regardless of Wal-Mart to adopt low-cost strategy or differentiation strategy, and these policies and practices to achieve specific objectives to save any additional cost, but to motivate employees to increase their contribution in helping companies and even in shaping culture.#p#分页标题#e#
12 Conclusion and proposals 结论和建议
With the update that brought the introduction of computers and mobile phones, information and technological advances robots to support human life and the work it is easy to be good performance in any business.