1.0 Chapter Overview
This opening chapter introduces the study by examining the background and historical perspective of the development of the Electronic media use worldwide and in Mauritius. The emergence of the phenomenon of electronic media addiction is introduced, and then brought into focus as it is beginning to affect electronic media users around the world, including Mauritius. Next, the aims and objectives of study and the research questions are identified. The chapter concludes with the research questions and the scope of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
According to Huesmann (2007) electronic media has become a common fashion today, especially among college students. One of the most remarkable changes in our society in the 20th century and 21st centuries has been the saturation of our culture and day-to-day lives by the electronic media. In this new generation radio, television, movies, videos games, video, cell phones, and computer networks have took on principal roles in our children’s daily lives. Electronic media improve the general knowledge by giving us with information all around the world. News transmit through different electronic media make it easier for us know about the day-to-day events in the world. News, teleÂfilms and documentaries revolving around social issues improve a social perception in teenagers and increase their concern towards societal environment. Electronic media also contribute to the enhancement of our language, knowledge and vocabulary. It is now a general truth that T.V and other means of electronic media is a strong source of not only giving information but also teach and satisfy the masses. Jennifer (2008) and Azeez et al. (2014) have found that research has proven that television has had either positive or negative impacts.#p#分页标题#e#
Electronic media can be described as those communication which is based on technology or electromechanical means of production and most often differentiated from print media Berkowitz and Rawlings (1963), Azeez et al (2014). The main electronic sources used by public normally comprise television, radio, sound recordings, video recordings and internet. It can be found that there are four basic functions of electronic media which generally include to inform, satisfy, teach and most important to influence public opinion (students). They also stated that the 20th century is heavily influenced by communication technology. Motion pictures arrived on scene in the first decade of this century.
The radio broadcast began in 1920s while TV entered in the world in 1940s, followed by cable television in 1950s, and satellite television in 1970s. Lastly the personal computer gave access to internet in 1980s. It transformed the interconnected computer networks through World Wide Web by 1990s.
Many benefits are connected with electronic media use, such access to needed information, international access to news and events, and interpersonal communication through email. But, along with the phenomenal expansion of the electronic media, there has been increasing concern internationally about the dangers related with electronic media over-use and becoming addicted to it (Buchholz, 2009; Daily News, 2008, 2009; Fackler, 2008; Janta, 2008; Khaosod, 2007; The Associated Press, 2009; Wanajak, 2011). A possible risk of using these new forms of media technology is also beginning to appear. Majority students are becoming too addicted to it and is having an impact on their academic performance, cyberbullying, sexting, becoming aggressive, becoming victims of aggression, insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality among students, and health problem such as affecting overall diet quality. Specially, increasing numbers of adolescents are becoming victims of aggression committed by peers with this new technology as cited in David-Ferdon and Hertz (2007). Examples comprise adolescents creating Web sites or sending e-mail or text messages that are meant to humiliate or harass a peer and/or to threaten physical harm called cyberbullying. Cyberbullying can be defined as bullying that occurs using electronic technology which contains devices and items such as mobile phones, computers, and tablets as well as communication instruments containing social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites. Examples of cyberbullying contain emails or mean text messages, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and humiliating pictures, clips, internet sites, or imposter accounts. Moreover, according Mr Ismael Bawamea an “enqueteur du bureau” at the Ombudsperson for Children Office in Mauritius, these offenders usually use SMS, e-mail, chat rooms and Facebook and social networking sites to spread their message. “Parents think they are observing their children effectively online, but according to an ICSF study, which is carried out in Mauritius, it has been found that less than 10% of parents monitored the websites,” says Mr Ismael Bawamea. “Without the necessary measure to ensure child protection online, children in Mauritius face massive dangers”, he indicated (Defi News, 2011). Researcher has collected over the past half century that exposure to violence on television, movies, and, most recently, in video games grows the risk of deviant behavior. According to the researchers, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); a latest study demonstrates that the average 8-10 year old child spends approximately eight hours a day using different forms of electronic technologies, and older children and teens spend more than 11 hours per day. Children and teenagers who have a Television in their bedroom spend more time with electronic media. Corresponding, the current amount of users for mobile phones, text messaging, e-mail, and chat rooms by our teenagers have opened new venues for social interaction in which aggression can happen and adolescents can be victimized (Huesmann, 2007).#p#分页标题#e#
Hence, Mauritian students are also facing many of the phenomenal problems due to electronic media. With the coming technology, everyone have a laptop and a Smartphone and with the everyday life, both parents work nowadays and adolescent do not have enough time to speak with their parents. After school, the teenagers go to their rooms, and start surfing, watching television for long hours or even listening to music through their mobiles, on their laptops, on radio. Moreover, they even eat in their rooms and keep sitting in front of their screen. The weird thing is that, they will prefer to talk to a stranger through social media rather than going out and talk with their friends. According to recent ICT indicators for Mauritius, a speedily increasing number of families and teenagers are using the Internet; the number of Internet subscribers at the end of 2010 was 284,200 and the number of mobile cellular subscribers was 1,190,900 in 2010 (Defi News, 2011). Henceforward, as stated in Alexa’s Statistics, Facebook can be seen as the number one site visited by Mauritian citizens as shown in the table below. Indeed, there were 159,480 Mauritians on Facebook as at 13th January 2010 as reported by the advertisement programme available on the network.
Social Networking Site OR Social Networking Service (SNS)
1.2 Problem statements
A conversion in telecommunications has greatly changed communication by providing new media in order to have access to long distance communication in the last years. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast took place in 1906 and led the way to usual transmission via analogue and digital media. The new communication media now permit for long distance exchanges between higher numbers of populations. Electronic media is appreciating a wide use every day with a rise in technology devices being created. Technology has become a time wasting act that distracts youth from communicating personally with mates and family through face to face communication. Electronic media now comes in the forms laptops, tablets, desktops, mobile phones (containing new applications such as WhatsApp, Viber, Facebook Messenger, WeChat and many more), mp3/mp4 players, video games, movies, radios, and television. Electronic has displayed to record highs within the last era, thus altering the dynamic of communication. Electronic media, as it is known in different globe, has altered with time.
Teenagers and technology appear to have a good relationship for each other. Both are young, proceeding rapidly, and ever altering. During the last 20 years there has been a sudden increase in new technology (David-Ferdon and Hertz, 2011). In the older generations teens readily accepted new technologies for example TVs, record and cassette players, computers, and VCRs, but the new generations have observed a virtual rapid increase in new technology, including mobile phones, iPads, iPods, Mp3/mp4 players, and personal digital assistants. This new technology has been eagerly accepted by adolescents and has caused to an expanded vocabulary, which contain instant messaging (“IMing”), blogging, and text messaging.#p#分页标题#e#
Modern technology has many social and educational benefits. In an article (Anon 2010) was stated that with the emergence of internet as the global media, education has progressed to a large extent. Nowadays it is found that distance education programs are carried out through online media which has proved to be quite an advantage to people who seldom have the chance to have interactive classes. There are many television programs that impart knowledge on different facets of education comprising language, science, mathematics and so forth. Electronic media has facilitated in encouraging students to deal effectively with the present educational system. It has changed their view towards education. With the introduction of electronic media, education has got a new meaning.
Problems arise when certain students do not use electronic media in a certain way that will have a positive effect on them, thus they become addicted to it. It is noticed that students give more attention to electronic media than they do to their studies (Ndaku, 2013). Teenagers try to follow new fashions, culture and style which is being presented in different programs and advertisements on television, on radio, through their smartphones, laptops, tablets, internet or posters on social networking sites.
Teachers have showed concern about the risks students can be exposed to through these electronic devices. To respond to this concern, some countries and schools have, for example established new strategies about the use of mobile phones on school grounds and created strategies to block the use of certain websites on school computers. For example, in Florida, South Carolina, Utah, and Oregon are developing new strategies to cope with cyberbullying. Teachers have decided to take action individually by randomly inspecting websites used by teenagers, such as MySpace. This small activity emphasizes on the phenomena of electronic aggression: any type of aggression which carried out through technology, any sort of harassment or bullying (lying, making fun of people, making rude or mean comments, gossips, or making threatening or hostile comments) that happens through email, a chat room, instant messaging, a website, or even text messaging. Teachers, custodians, and other people who work with youngsters know that children and adolescents spend most of their time on electronic media such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging rather that studying. What is not known is exactly how and how frequent they use different kinds of electronic? Could the use of electronic technology expand the likelihood that a teen is the victim of an attack? (David-Ferdon 2010).
Electronic media is having a negative impact on the academic performance of students, cyberbullying, becoming aggressive, becoming victims of aggression, insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality among students, and health problem such as affecting overall diet quality. For example, too much addicted to violent video games or listening and watching too much of metallic, hard rock and rock music are affecting the brain and pushing the students in violent behavior. Attention is growing about the danger of teenagers to become victims of aggression carried out by peers with electronic media (David-Ferdon et al, 2007). Cyber-bullying is a global phenomenon which can include people from different countries. It can be defined as simple as continuing to leave a text through means of technology to someone who does not want further contact with the sender. Moreover, cyber-bullying happens when adolescents are tortured, bullied, harassed, humiliated, or in a different way which is targeted by another adolescent using the Internet, interactive and electronic means or mobile phones (Defi news, 2011).#p#分页标题#e#
During recent decades, research examined the sleep patterns and habits of adolescents has become growingly more widespread. More precisely, lack of sleep and poor quality have been associated with impairments in declarative, procedural and working memory performance, as well as poor concentration on studies leading into poor academic performance at schools (Cain and Gradisar, 2010).
Therefore, to conclude, that is the reason why I am conducting this research study. This research study aims at demonstrating the impact of electronic media on the secondary school students.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of study
To analyse the impact of electronic media on students’ social life.
To find out how often the students use electronic media.
To evaluate the attitude of students towards electronic media and measure the spending time on it.
To determine how the use of electronic media has affected the academic performance of students.
1.4 Research Questions
1) What are the impact of electronic media on students’ social life?
2) How often do the students use electronic media?
3) How are the attitude of students towards electronic media and the time spending on it?
4) How has the use of electronic media affected the academic performance of the students? 1.5 Scope of study
The essence of this research is to primarily study the impact of electronic media on secondary school students. The research intends to focus on students in Mauritius for easy analysis of data.
1.6Flow of report
Following this introduction are the chapters that address the relevant literature used to develop the theme the impact of electronic media on secondary school students, the research methods used in the work, the results & data analysis, discussion, the conclusion and recommendation. Each chapter is briefly introduced below.
In chapter 2, the literature is reviewed in different areas. First, the impact of electronic media around the world.
Research Methods (Methodology)
In chapter 3, the methodology and research design are explained. The research sample and date collection methods are described.
Results & data analysis
In chapter 4, the results and data analysis are explained according to the data collected, from the questionnaire survey. Results are compared.
In chapter 5, the discussion will be made from the results obtained.#p#分页标题#e#
Conclusions and Recommendations
Chapter 6, concludes the research work and incorporates the recommendations
In the next chapter we shall proceed with a review of the literature.