How to write a citation in research paper? These citations come in different formats, all of which a student needs to know about. The guidelines of research paper citation depending on the format that the student is using, especially if it has been recommended by the professor. Any paper used, as a reference, needs to be cited accordingly. The format of references in the research paper is important because it prevents the student from plagiarizing the works of others as well as following in the right way of acknowledging the existing knowledge, an aspect that is very common in scholarly writing.This article provides you with relevant writing research paper tips, steps and examples for your reference.
一.when to cite a source
As a student, you need to know when to cite a source. Remember that research paper citation is the golden rule of avoiding plagiarism in an academic paper. As such, you have to include a citation whenever you can. If you are not sure, whether you can cite a source, go ahead and do it. When it comes to citing a research paper, you can:
Use a direct quote from the source
Paraphrase or summarize another writer’s idea, opinion or concept
Cite any information, data, and facts that you use in your research paper
Since you know when you can engage in research paper citation, when can you do away with citations?
There is no point of citing a research paper if the information that you are using is common knowledge. For instance, everybody knows the president of Russia. However, if you are unsure that this is common knowledge, you can go ahead and cite that information.
二.how to write a citation in research paper
1.Citing a research paper in the APA format
When using the APA format, the name of the author is inverted. In other words, you have to use the last name first, followed by a comma then the initial of the first name. If you are dealing with a source that has multiple authors, the APA style of citing a research paper requires you to separate the multiple names of these authors with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the last name.
The APA style is usually applied in psychology-related papers as well as social sciences. An example of an APA citation would look like this:
“Kennedy, J., & James, F.”
If the source was published in an academic journal, you need to provide the year it was published. It should look like this:
“Kennedy, J., & James, F. (2019)”
You can list the title of the paper and use sentence capitalization as you write out the full title of the paper. Any first word us be capitalized and any other proper name. If there is a subtitle, you can place a colon and capitalize its first word. For instance:
“Kringle, K., J., &Frost,J. (2012). Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole Reindeer.”
If you found the source in a university-maintained database, corporation,or organization, you have to include the index number assigned to the paper in parenthesis after the title. For instance:
“Kringle, K., J., & Frost,J. (2012). Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole Reindeer. (Report Number 3456).”
It is crucial that you include where you found the source. If it was published in a magazine or anacademic journal, you could use the same format that is applicable in any other article. If the article is unpublished, give as much information as you can to direct the audience to the research paper. For instance:
“Kringle, K., J., & Frost, J. (2012).Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole Reindeer (Report No. 3456). Retrieved from University of Alaska Library Archives, December 13, 2018”
Ensure there is parenthetical citation in your paper when you use a statement that comes from the source. Ensure that the names of the authors and the year of publication are there. For instance
“(Kennedy & James, 2019)” If there is no date on the source, you can use the abbreviation n.d. in the body of your text. For instance: “(Kennedy & James, n.d)”
2.The MLA format of citing a research paper
When using the Modern Language Association format of citing a research paper, you are likely writing something within the liberal arts and humanities. It follows these simple steps:
When you are doing in-textcitations using the MLAformat, you are supposed to insert the last name of the author and page number of the material in parenthesis. For instance:
However, if you mention the name of the author in the text, you can omit it in the parenthesis.
If you are using an in-text citation of a print research report, you have to include the works cited page. He name of the last name of the author comes first, a comma, the first name followedby a period. The article title and a period ought to appear in quotation marks. You then put the name of the journal in italics. More so include the issue number, year of publication inside parentheses, a colon, page range using a hyphen and a period. This citation ends with “Print,” but do not put it in quotation marks. For instance:
Kennedy, Francis. “ Eating Habits of Lions.” Capybara Monthly 20 (22015): 223-226.
If you are using a web reference that is an online research report, you can include it in the works cited page. The format for references in a research paper here dictates that the author, article title, journal name, issue, year, and pages are put in their exact print version. After the pages, list the “Web” without the quotation marks, but add a period. You have to indicate the day, an abbreviation of the month, and year of access to the article and then finish with a period. For instance:,
Kennedy, Francis. “Eating Habits of Lions.” Capybara Monthly 20 (22015): 223-226.
Web. 5 Feb. 2018
3.Citing your research paper using the AMA format
A student who does not know how to cite in a research paper using this format; you need to know that the first word of the article, its subtitle, and any proper noun is capitalized the journal name is abbreviated and italicized. In this format, the names of the authors and editors of the paper are used to being the citation. You cannot use any type of punctuation except for a comma between names. If you are dealing with more than size, authors are you list the first three followed by “et al.”
“Kennedy J, Francis M.”
The title ought to appear in sentence case where you only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns therein the article. If there is a subtitle, include it after a colon with an initial capita at its beginning. For instance
“Kringle K, Frost J. Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North
If the paper was published, you could include the journal information you can include the title of the journal in italics, followed by the year of publication, issue number and the pages where the paper is extracted. For instance:
“Kringle K, Frost J. Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole reindeer.Nat Med.2019; 18(9): 149-1432”
If the paper is unpublished, give the location information. This regards any paper presented at a conference, symposium or any other place, include that information. If found online, give a direct link to the date of access. For instance:
“Kringle K, Frost J. Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole reindeer. Oral presentation at Arctic Health Association Annual Summit; December 2017; Nome, Alaska.”
For a paper that you are citing online, it would read as follows:
“Kringle K, Frost J. Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole reindeer. ”
Ensure that you have used superscript number within the body of your paper for in-text citations. This should come after the information that needs to be cited. This helps you to build your bibliography as you write the paper as you list these citations is the order in which they appear in your text.
三．Sociology research paper example
Prompt:The title of this essay is:Perspectives Of Marketers In Using Facebook; Social Media As A Marketing Tool By Micro Breweries In Bengaluru
The growth of beer culture, especially freshly brewed beer culture is booming in India. With Microbreweries are booming in southern part of India especially Bangalore where there are new micro breweries being launched once in few months. Bangalore is indeed called the pub capital of India (Shruthi, 2018). The growth of digital era has put us on a phase where using social media marketing is a compulsion for individuals as well as organizations (Singh, 2016). This study investigates the primary perception of marketers in using social media marketing, especially Facebook as an integral part of their marketing campaigns. The outcome of this research would help marketers across the country to get an insight about the social media marketing usage in terms of Facebook and would also suggest if this tool would be helpful in their marketing strategy or not.
The study was conducted across microbrewers in Bangalore with managers/proprietors who are responsible for marketing as the respondents. This study surveyed 38 marketers out of 42 approached with total list of 45 registered and functioning microbreweries in Bangalore. With the overall perspective of marketers, it is considered that Facebook as a marketing tool is vital in helping the marketing campaigns of the Food and Beverage operation. This research paper includes primary and secondary data from online and offline sources. This paper does not include all the parameters of the social media campaigns used, instead some of the highlighting parameters have been considered to get a generalist overview about the research topic mentioned. Integrating traditional marketing practices were a common practice among the marketers and most of the marketers agreed that they have a dedicated social media marketing team and dedicate 6-10 hours a week engaging on social media, However using live videos and podcasting is less common among the brewers in Bangalore. The results were quite promising with most of the marketers agree that they use Facebook as a marketing tool would help in augmenting their marketing strategy.
Key words: Globalization, Social Media Marketing, Facebook, Microbrewery, Social media engagement tools.
With the evolution and ramification of globalization in the 21st century, it acts as a life changing impact on many individual business and corporate companies. With the combination of various patterns of driving the marketing thought process, along with the development of information technology, Communication has become an easier task compared to the methods and means of communication which occurred a decade ago. Globalization has augmented the way of communication Vis-à-vis reaching out to people has literally become boundary-less activity (Ioanid, Militaru, Negoita, & Dumitriu, 2015). Advancement and progression in the means and methods of communication has made it a compulsion for managers, supervisors, executives and other employees to engage in online communication to communicate with clients /prospective clients (Braojos-Gomez, Benitez-Amado, & Llorens-Montes, 2015).
随着21世纪全球化的发展和分支，它对许多个体企业和公司产生了改变生活的影响。随着各种驱动营销思维过程的模式的结合，随着信息技术的发展，与十年前出现的传播方法和手段相比，传播已经成为一项更容易的任务。全球化增强了沟通的方式，Vis-à-vis向人们伸出援助之手已经成为无边界的活动(Ioanid, Militaru, Negoita， & Dumitriu, 2015)。随着沟通手段和方法的进步和进步，经理、主管、高管和其他员工都被迫进行在线沟通，与客户/潜在客户进行沟通(Braojos-Gomez, Benitez-Amado， & Llorens-Montes, 2015)。
In the past couple of years social media users have been enormously being multiplied with users growing on a positive logarithmic scale. Just by looking at the graph of Facebook users signing up every hour, the graph of users with respect to time is growing on a sharp peak today with close to 2.27 billion active users on the network. Facebook surpassed one billion users accomplishing the networking site to be the first to lead the charts globally (Statista, 2018). With the rapid growth in the number of users in the networking site, the accessibility and distribution of information has grown on a broader perspective. Online Media reach on social media is directly proportional to growth of members in the networking site.
With a majority of brewers having a dedicated social media marketing team as they perceive millions of business would reap through the implementation and utilization of social media marketing in an effective manner. The consistency of the social media marketing tool and the quality of media being broadcasted should be properly scrutinized before publishing across the web. Proper care is to be taken into consideration in order to review and edit content which has been previously broadcasted .
The term microbrewery was originally used to indicate the size of the brewery, as it may seem obvious with the literal translation of micro-brewery. The tradition of microbrewery originates from the United kingdom which slowly extend its popularity in the United States of America. (Grey, 2016).
Rewinding the time back to ten years, we could possibly look at the Indian market liking beer from a chilled bottle rather than having it from a tap (Talekar, 2016). With the slow reforms and an instigator to the micro brewery culture in India, the first micro brewery was started in Pune at the Galaxy Hotel and Spa and it was named Howzatt (Basu-Bhalla, 2012).
The current trend says that Facebook marketing is one of the most efficient ways of marketing where it is more efficient (Shaw, 2018)all the brewers in Bengaluru use Facebook as a medium to connect with their targeted audience. Optimizing the visual content with links which can redirect the page to another site where there is more relavant information is given. Using different types of content like images, videos and blog posts there would be a change in the content and the viewers would feel the difference in it.
Findings And Conclusions:
Traditional marketing and Social media marketing have been incorporated and improvised in such a manner that it would give an efficient output by concatenating it together and creating a strong combination. With less integration of the two, the business can take on risks which can be related to over depending on one or over use of another. Even before implementing the strategy there has to be a clear idea on the planning and implementation of the marketing strategy
Digital Era has transformed perspectives and approaches of marketing; with traditional marketing tools such as Television, Newspaper, Radio, etc., using social media marketing would help in reaching the right target market. Marketers also said that by just a few clicks through Facebook insights, they are able to get various vital parameters such as number of clicks, Shares, Popular time, Etc., through the option of Facebook Insights. Having a dedicated social media team helps in achieving the target better. One of the marketers revealed “A good brand is born from cohesion. It’s vital to everything you do, from what you say on social media to the logo design you choose. If you aren’t consistent with your messaging, you’ll weaken your brand and make it difficult for customers to remember who you are and what makes you different”.
With the survey undertaken, more than 95% of the marketers reveal that using Facebook as a marketing tool is more economical compared to other means of marketing as the auxiliary expense does not incur on transportation, material, Physical labor etc., Majority of the marketers reveal that using Facebook as a marketing tool is effective as most of the marketing is done through digital format and also advise that the creative content should be of high quality and the frequency i.e presence in the social media should be more frequent.
When citing a research paper using primary sources, you have to know that they are in their original form or digitized. They can also be reprinted or reproduced in some form. They provide first-hand accounts of an event or a period in history. In most cases, primary sources are the original document,and they include tests, artifacts, and audiovisuals.
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