As an elementary state policy in China, one child policy refers to that both husband and wife ought to obey one child policy that support late marriage ,late child and births which are fewer and better. It is also known as family planning policy. According to this on child policy, only one child can be given birth to, however, some particular cases allow parents to have two or more, for instance, twins, couples with a girl in remote rural areas, ethnic minorities or neither father or mother has a sibling, etc( Susan, 2008). Every coin has two sides, one the one hand, this policy helps China resolve many tough problems, especially the pressure of large population and the problems which are brought by it, and on the other hand, it brings some new social problems such as aging problems, sex imbalance in rural areas and the lack of young labor in big cities. Therefore, the government and people hold a different attitude towards different periods, the government advocates high birthrate before 1970s and then the government realize the urgency to have a control over birthrate and the birth control are implemented officially and completely after 1970s. In recent years, this policy is doubted by people as more and more problems are caused by it. Some citizens even argue the abolishment of this one child policy and this group of people becomes more and more (Nancy, 2009). A new national policy called double the two-child policy which allows couples to have another child if only either of the couple is a singleton is a good example.
Admittedly, one child policy has existed for a long time due to some particular reasons and backgrounds. In 1979, one fourth of the world’s population is living in China which owns only 7 percent of arable land. And most of them are within 30 years old and then the 1950s and 1960s’ baby boomers make the population of China increase greatly. On the other hand, it is due to the traditional conceptions that let people give birth to more babies in order to look after them when they become old. Then the present government thinks a strict control over population should be put forward. It is just the one child policy. They regard it is helpful to reform economy and improve living standards. Some facts can prove us this, China in that time has a large population, which is also one of the most serious problems in contemporary times. Over-population can lead to a lot of problems such as natural resource shortage, the lack of supplied food, increasing corroded cities and towns and high unemployment rate, which is an elementary concern in the world. For instance, Famous tourist sites are crowded with tourists on National Day or May Day. Passengers around the Spring Festival going back their hometown are the greatest move in the world. Scary high housing price caused by the housing tension is the result of over-population in China. More and more graduates can not find a satisfying job after graduation because the number of graduates who are hunting for a job are much fewer than the amount of needed position. The capital of China, Beijing has been facing a shortage of electricity and water for many years. It is these problems that cause the public’s attention, and then one child policy is on agenda. That is because the above problems will not solved if China’s population does not reduce at all. More serious problems will be faced by Chinese people in the future if related measures are not adopted by Chinese government. So there is a necessity for the implementation of one child policy. During the past decades, one child policy has been playing an important role in accelerating China’s economic development and improve environment situation. China's society has been successfully transformed from the "high birth rate, low death rate and high growth" to "low birth rate, low death rate and low growth, great success are made in controlling China’s population. However, one child policy has further led to many social problems. For example, the old’ aging problems, many factories are facing a lack of strong and energetic labor because of aging problems. Besides, the aging problem leads to a series of problems too. The nation have to allot more money to take care of these old people and some public benefit institution are in a great need to be built to provide more comfortable places for the old. In addition, every family just has only one child because of the one child policy, these children will face a great pressure to take care of four old people when they grow up and their parents become old. Of course, young couples have to raise their own children, so they all have a heavy burden compared to previous people. Due to the heavy pressure that young people will face, there is a phenomena that more and more young couple prefer to not give birth to babies when they get married, so a vicious cycle are being come. Society will lack more and more young labor, especially in big costal cities. In China, there is a traditional son-preference value hold by most of Chinese people, especially in remote rural areas with low-educated people. Young couple will have a abortion if they find out that they will give birth to a baby girl (Dante and Sheree,1993). In their traditional opinions, boys are more important and valuable than girls because they can do more heavy farming work. And boys are regarded as the best choice to carry on the family line. Thus, this contributes to the imbalance between female and male. The population of male is much bigger than that of female. Many young man have a trouble in finding a suitable girlfriend with limited girls. Fewer families there are the less stable the society becomes. And violence often happens among lonely young man because their lack of warmth from female or a steady family happiness. All these above problems cause by on child policy become a barrier of China’s economic development.
As the disadvantage of one child policy becomes more and more obvious, the new two-child policy is carried out officially now. Considering the recent situation of China, two- child policy seems to be more practical and suitable than one child policy previously (Jeffrey, 2010). If the couples have a right to have another one child, the couple will have a chance to give birth to a boy when the first one is a girl. Thus the abortion rate will decline accordingly. The balance between woman and man will recover due to the new two-child policy, and population of young will increase accordingly. In addition, it also satisfies the need of some people who do not want just only one child. A family with two children is more beneficial than a family with only a child. (Albert ,1964 )Because a family with two children can create a good environment for children’s growth, they will be more considerate and do not feel lonely when they grow up. Besides, they can share the burden of raising their parents together and they can accompany each other when their parents pass away.
Susan Greenhalgh, 2008, Just one child: science and policy in Deng's China, University of California Press, Berkeley
Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom,2010, China in the 21st century: what everyone needs to know Oxford University Press New York
Albert , Feuerwerker ,1964 ,Modern China, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Dante , Cicchetti and Sheree L. Toth ,1993,Child abuse, child development, and social policy, Ablex Pub, Norwood, N.J
Nancy, Qian,2009,Quantity-quality and the One Child Policy the only-child disadvantage in school enrollment in rural China National Bureau of Economic Research,Cambridge, Mass.