Mauritius is a small island in the Indian Ocean, but still it is considered to be the tiger of the ocean. Red, blue, green and yellow are the four colors of the Mauritian flag which reflects millions of thoughts and the sacrifice of our forefather of the independence. Mauritius was known to be a monocrop island with the major importance attributed to the agricultural activities, but actually Mauritius is a knowledge based island with all the progress. With the rapid pace in the technological advancement our Mauritian economy had become more and more dependent on the tourism sector which is one of the major source of revenue for Mauritius.
Hotels and restaurants are mushrooming in the coastal area of Mauritius at a light speed, both direct and indirect job are being created. Behind the proper running of this particular sector there is a lot of efforts needed in terms of capital, land, labour and enterprise. But however labour had a great importance in the running of the economy. The most precious resource that countries can posses is the human resources because it is the people who bring prosperity.
1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT
With the rapid pace in the technology progress, the aggressive competition and the globalization the way of living had witness some alternations. The impact of globalization had lead countries to be more competitive and in order to fight against the fierce competition; countries are developing new sophisticated techniques of production to be more dominant on the market. All these changers had also prone the individual to be competitive and in order to compete against each other; the latter must be efficient both mentally and physically. One of the major problems associated with the hotel industry is that the employee lack skills to attend the demand of the tourists.
Training is one of the major functions in the human resource department, the human resource manager must ensure that the workforce is sufficiently trained both in the present and in the future. But however training is often ignored and this might cause the hotel with unsatisfied objectives, due to lack of skill the employee might not be able to attend the demand of the customer swiftly. The employee might not feel so motivated to work if they don't have the required skills and knowledge to respond to the customer.#p#分页标题#e#
1.3: REASON OF THE STUDY
The most basic reason of this study is to analyse the importance of training for an employee and how training can help to increase the employee's efficiency and how it can motivate them to work.
1.4: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to analyses the impact of training upon the employee in the tourism industry and to shed light upon whether training can help:
to motivate the employee
to increase the efficiency and performance of the employee
the employee to have job satisfaction in their work
the employee for empowerment
According to (Manpower Services Commission, 1981 Glossary of training Terms .London: HMSO) "Training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization."Thus training is an effective tool in solving problem in a particular organization. Training may help an employee in various ways; like enhancing their performance, motivating them and help to create a ladder for their career.
According to (Nadler, Leonard, and Wiggs, Garland D. (1986). Managing Human Resource Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) "Training focuses on learning the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to initially perform a job or task or to improve upon the performance of a current job or task, while development activities are not job related, but concentrate on broadening the employee's horizons.'
People are the key resources for an organization it is the most precious asset which organisations can posses. Training is also an effective tool in solving social problem in the society; it helps to eradicate the problem of unemployment by inserting skills and knowledge in the unskilled labour.
2.2: TRAINING IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Training in the tourism industry is becoming very crucial. It is important that the hotels have the required number of staff with the appropriate skill so that to ensure customer satisfaction. Hotels are sending their employee on training so that to cope with the rapid changing demands of the tourist. Training of an employee in the hotel industry is very primordial because it is through people that the hotel will be able to achieve its overall goals and mission.
But however there must be a strategic integration between the human resource management and the overall goals and mission. According to (Guest, D. (1989b) 'Human resource management: its implications for industrial relations and trade unions', in Storey, J. (ed) New perspectives on human resource management. London: Routledge.) Strategic integration is defined as "the ability of organizations to integrate HRM issues into strategic plans, to ensure that the various aspects of HRM cohere and for line manager to incorporate and HRM perspective into their decision making."#p#分页标题#e#
An investment in people may increase the performance of the hotel, since the employee will be more competent with special skills and knowledge. It is useless to employee an unskilled labour it is better to insert skills and knowledge in the employee so as the employee can respond smoothly to the demands.
According to (Rowley, J. (1995), "Management development: new agenda for information professionals", Library Management, Vol. 16 No.1, pp.5-10.)
"Training and development is important for the maintenance of the human resource base of the organisation and must be viewed as an integral part of the core organisational strategy, rather than an ad hoc operation issue." Thus it is crucial to invest in the training and development of the employee so as to be dominant on the market
2.3: TRAINING AIMS TO THE EMPLOYEE
Training is essential for the survival of the hotel and its forms part of the function of the human resource department. The human resource manager must ensure that the workforce in the hotel is sufficiently trained both in the present and for the future. The principle aim of training is to help the hotel to prosper by inserting knowledge and skills in the employee.
According to Armstrong 2001:"Training means investing in people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of the natural abilities" so training will help to modify the employee in the hotel industry by improving their performance and skills, employee will get the opportunity to develop skill and enhance the competencies
Another aims of training is that it help to prepare the employee for empowerment. After an effective training program, the employee will have enough skills to accept responsibility from superiors, moreover training, has the objective to make an employee competent with enough skills and knowledge.
2.4: BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO THE EMPLOYEE
An effective training can have a positive impact both for the hotel and for the staff member. But, however if the training is wrongly interpreted between the trainee and the leaner it can have certain drawbacks. According to (Boyatzis, R.E. (1982) The Competent Manager: A model for effective performance. New York: Wiley). Competence may be defined as "an underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective and/ or superior's performance in a job."
With an effective training program the employee will acquire different skills and will be able to master different stages and may perceive himself as a specialist. After being trained the employee will have a multiple range of skills and may perform in different area from the pastry department to the food and beverages department#p#分页标题#e#
Furthermore, an effective training helps the employee to enhance their competences. Training will make the employee more competent and help the employee to perform better in the hotel. Moreover while increasing the competency of the employee this will help the hotel to offer better quality of servicers and ensure that the tourist obtains customer satisfaction.
Effective training also helps the employee to have a job security in the hotel industry and help for career development. By having adequate skills and knowledge from training, the employee will be able to have a secure job where he will not have the fear to get fired at any time due to lack of skills.
According to (Van Ruyssevelat et al 1995; 3-4 Comparative Industrial and Employment Relations. London: Stage.) "Security no longer depends on the job or on the organization, but on the employee's competencies and willingness to learn and adapt to changes in the organization about the labour market."
According to (Pugh, S. (1984), "Management training versus training in library management", Information and Library Manager, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.35-37,51.) "The provision of training will foster an increase in professionalism and further exploitation of management methods, whereas a lack of training can cause frustration and lack of job satisfaction." Training is a useful tool in motivating the employee since its create a job satisfaction, the employee will perceive a certain degree of satisfaction when they perform a task well by using the skills obtain in their training program. Moreover training help to avoid frustration in the employee mind, the employee will feel more devoted to the work with the required skills and knowledge.
2.4: REASONS OF TRAINING
According to (Cherrington, David J. (1995). The Management of Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.) "Training can be used in a variety of ways, including (1) orienting and informing employees, (2) developing desired skills, (3) preventing accidents through safety training, (4) supplying professional and technical education, and (5) providing supervisory training and executive education."
2.4: TRAINING NEEDS ASSESMENT
Training can be an effective tool for the organization only if the training need analysis is being carried. In the hotel it is primordial to make a forecast before investing since it have a massive cost if it fails. As (Hall, D.T.(1984) 'Human resource development and organisational effectiveness', in Fombrun, C., Tichy, N. and Devanna, M. (eds) Strategic Human Resource Management. New York: John Willey.) comments, "many organization invest considerable resources in training and development but never really examine how training and development can most effectively promote organizational objectives or how developmental activities should be altered in the light of the business plans."The human resource manager has the role to ensure that the proper training is given to the employee but the manager must also investigate whether the employee need to be trained. It will be futile to invest in training to enhance the performance of the employee, without knowing whether the employee is performing inefficiently. Training need assessment refers to process used to determine whether training is necessary#p#分页标题#e#
The training need assessment consists of 3 analyses;
the organization analysis
the personal analysis
organizational analysis is whereby we analyze whether the hotel goal will be achieve through training , whether the resources is sufficient for training and whether we have the support of the manager
Person analysis is done to know whether what type of person need training, it is also judge the personality of the employee in the hotel, whether he is inefficient and he need training or he need motivation. This analysis also judge the willingness of the person to be trained, whether he really want to be trained
Task analysis is simply to evaluate the type of task that is whether the task needs someone with required skills and knowledge.
2.5: IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING NEEDS ASSESMENT
Training is basically important in making an individual competent and in making the organisation successful. The principal importance of a TNA is that training could be used unnecessary. That is if the problem is concerned with motivation there is no need to invest in training of the employee but it would be more convenient to motivate the staff using an effective reward management system. As (Odiorne and Rummler (1988) have pointed out "the quality of the training outputs is only as good as the training needs assessment data input. If the training needs assessment have not been properly identified, then both the training course and the training function are in jeopardy" (Odiorne and Rummler, 1988, p. 130).
Moreover training might not achieve the goal and objective of the hotel, if proper training need assessment is not conducted, the training might achieve another objective that was not really expected by the management. It is very easy to send an employee on training but the hotel must ensure that the employee is willing to be trained. Thus a training need analysis will help the management to know whether the employee really want to be trained. It also helps the hotel to avoid unnecessary cost. If a training need assessment is conducted and after the assessment it is noted that the training is not really required, thus the training need assessment had help to avoid unexpected cost.
2.6: METHODS FOR TRAINING NEED ASSESMENT
In the hotel industry, there are many tools which have been developed for training need assessment. It is basically necessary for the hotel to go through a training need assessment to analyse whether the staff need training. There are several methods which could be used like observation, interviews and questionnaires#p#分页标题#e#
Observation is simply observing the way the employee is performing in the hotel, the way the latter respond to the demand of the customer. Experts simply observed the employee and then analysis his performance.
In the training need assessment methods questionnaires is the most effective way to assess whether an employee need training. Several questions are being asked on the questionnaires concerning the skills and competences of the employee
Interviews are conducted face to face between two people. Questions are being asked to the managers or training officer whether the workforce need training. It is more convenient to make use of an interview to assess whether the workforce really need training, there will be more interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee and during the interview there is true feeling of the employee it will help the interviewer to judge the employee.
2.7: TYPES OF TRAINING
There are several different methods of training, but however the right methods must be selected so that the objective of training program is achieved. There are two famous methods which could be used by the hotels to train their employees; on the job training and off the job training. However there are also other methods which exist like the vestibules training, apprenticeship and mentoring but in the hotel industry it is more convenient to make use of the on the job training and off the job training.
2.7.1: induction training
Induction training is primordial whenever a new employee joins in the organization. When there is a new recruit the individual is new to the system and is unaware about the culture of the hotel and the rules and regulation, thus induction training is done so as to train the new employee about the culture of the hotel, the mission statement of the hotel. Induction training removes the frustration which normally takes place when a new employee joins the organization. Moreover it also helps for the better integration of the employee in the hotel and create a certain relationship with other workers.
2.7.2: on the job training.
(Siele 1988, p. 73) has seen OJT as "an informal type of training given at the employee's work place, where the trainer plays the role of the immediate supervisor of the employee. The purpose is to improve the employee's working skills, efficiency and productivity". On the job training is the most famous type of training which could be used to enhance the performance of an employee but however it have certain limitations. On the job training is being on the workplace itself. The employee is being trained by observing an experienced worker and then it simply copy the way the experience worker is working. On the job training is very cost effective, the hotel don't have to send their employee outside their hotels to acquire knowledge. But however there are certain limitation associated with the on the job training, the learner might not be able to learn everything well if the experience worker lack the teaching skills and sometime the competitive atmosphere prevailing doesn't allow the new employee to learn. According to (Tracey, 1971, p. 30, reported by S. Jones, 1988 p. 11).On-the-job training was claimed to be "the most common, the most widely accepted and the most necessary method of training employees in the skills essential for acceptable performance."#p#分页标题#e#
2.7.3: off the job training
Off the job training is simply sending the employee out of the workplace for training. The employee can be sent to special institution so to get knowledge. Special institutions are being built to welcome the employee who needs to be trained. But however off the job training might have certain limitation it does not reflect the real environment of the work since the employee is away from the workplace. According to (Storey, J. (1991) 'Do the Japanese make better managers?', Personal Management, August, pp. 24-28), 'the predilection for sending employees on courses which do not appear to have relevance to the employee of the job only enhances the negative view of this type of training."
2.8 TRAINING VS MOTIVATION
Motivation and training may be closely linked together. Training help to solve an problem of the employee and try to develop a new employee with new skills and knowledge. Training can also help to motivate a staff to work better.
Many rewards like financial reward and non financial reward are being used to motivate employee in the hotel industry. A good reward management system might be effective in helping the employee to obtain job satisfaction in the hotel industry. It will be useless to reward the employee when there is alienation between the employee and the work. Employee might not feel so motivated to work because they lack skills and knowledge to perform. The lack of skills might not encourage the employee to build a new career in the hotel industry. When investing massively in the training of an employee it might boost up the willingness of the employee.
Training also help the employee to integrate better in the hotel, the employee will feel that their presence is primordial and the management is taking the employee into consideration. Employee will not feel out of sight out of mind since the management is caring for them by sending them on training
According to Abraham Maslow's hierchie of needs self actulisation of needs is the last needs that an employee will want to achieve. Self actualization includes self -fulfillment, achievement, individual growth, and the realisaton of potentials. The self actualization needs is not so difficult to achieve but however if an employee want to satisfy the self actualization needs skills and knowledge is needed to create a career and to realise potential. Thus training help to achieve an employee needs.
According to Frederick Herzberg's two - factor theory of motivation there are two factors; the hygiene factors and motivators in the work environment that help to motivate an employee. Frederick herzerb contribute that the hygiene factor doesn't motivate the employee at all but it's the other set of factors "the motivators in the work environment" that help to motivate the employee. The "motivators" includes interesting and meaningful work, achievement, recognition, responsibility, personal growth and advancement. But however it is obvious that an employee will not be able to achieve power to be recognize and develop their career if there is a lack skills and knowledge. Thus in the hotel training may help to motivate the employee since it will help to satisfy the second set of factors of Frederick Herzberg.#p#分页标题#e#