据科拉佩尔斯（1991），Martin Betancourt完成了她的dissertation1986采用有声思维研究锂在二语写作波多黎各大学的学生使用流程。Martin Betancourt总结了二语写作过程与两构成行为异常L1过程相同，使用一种以上的语言和翻译（科拉佩尔斯，1991）。
一些学者声称，L1及其思维方式影响二语写作。例如，一些学者对比分析和对比修辞分析总结他们的研究，他们从母语文化因素和知识在语篇组织方法的L2学习者发现的影响（卡普兰，1966）。美国应用语言学家Robert B. Kaplan已经对文化思维模式与语篇段落组织之间的关系。1966，他首先提出了跨文化教育中的文化思维模式，他首先提出了“对比修辞”的概念。
2.2 Literature Review 文献综述
2.2.1 Overseas Research onL1Transferon L2 Writing
In the early 21st century, L2 writing theory formed as an independent branch of discipline subject, which has its own theoretical system, researching methods and a variety of writing strategies, such as whether L1 is used and how frequently it is used, when and how L1 has effects on L2 writing.
According to Krapels(1991), Martin Betancourt accomplished her dissertation in 1986 and adopt thinking aloud protocols to study the use of the LI in the L2 writing processes of Puerto Rican college students. Martin Betancourt summarized that the L2 writing process was the same as L1 process with the exception of two composing behaviors, using more than one language and translating(Krapels, 1991).
Odlin(2001)claimed that the facilitative factors can only be found when learners with different Ll are studied and learners’ writing is carried out. For instance, to learn Japanese, Chinese learners have tremendous advantages over English learners because of the similarities between the Chinese and Japanese writing system.
Some scholars claim that L1 and its thinking way have interfered with L2 writing. For instance, some scholars of contrastive analysis and contrastive rhetoric analysis concluded in their studies that they have found the impact from L1 cultural factors and knowledge on the discourse organizing method of L2 learners(Kaplan, 1966). The American applied linguist Robert B. Kaplan had been studying the relationship between cultural thinking model and paragraph organization in discourse. He published the paper The Cultural Thinking Model In Intercultural Education in 1966, in which he firstly put forward the concept of “contrastive rhetoric”. He insisted that in addition to the general understanding that languages are different from each other in grammar, words and sentence structures, languages are also different from each other in the field of rhetoric. After contrastively analyzing 600 ESL writing papers, Kaplan(1966) summarized that learners with different native language backgrounds had different discourse organization in English writing. The discourse structure with English as native language is straightforward and lined-up. On the contrary, the discourse structure in eastern languages, including Chinese, is nothing about straightforward. It is curled around the topic, and the paragraph organization is circling. #p#分页标题#e#
Based on his study using contrastive analysis, Kaplan(1966) concluded that language is kind of cultural phenomenon, and each language or culture has its own particular way to organize discourse. Each language or culture has its own rhetoric characteristics, which reflect people’s culture thinking models. The rhetorical models or the thinking models of non-English cultures are enormous different from those of English culture. In addition, some researches pointed out the ESL(English as a Second Language) writing of Chinese learners is not only different from the one of westerners in discourse model, but also in other aspects of discourse.
2.2.2 Domestic Research on L1Transfer on L2 Writing
Similar studies concerning the L1 use, L1 interference, L1 thinking in the L2 writing process in China has been conducted. GuoChunjie and Liu Fang(1997)offered a cognitive framework for explaining L1 influence on L2 learner's thinking operations during L2 production, attempting to find out the general systematicity behind the illustrations of the learners’ thinking operations in L2 production with respect to L1 influence.
Wen Qiufang and GuoChunjie have made further research (1998) which finds that the amount of L1 thinking and the L2 writing quality are negatively correlated. The two researchers observed the process of 20 senior high school students conducting English composition. The students were asked to write an English essay according to given pictures and they need to describe the thinking process of how they put the essay together in English and to speak out whatever happened in their minds by the methods of thinking aloud. The results of the study showed that the students scored higher on composition used the native language significantly less than the students scored lower on the total amount. However, from the aspect of the five identified functions of L1 use, the students with higher scores applied more L1 in transformation and confirmation, but less L1 in the other three functions.
Ma Guanghui and Wen Qiufang(1999)make a study on the process of English picture composition in an attempt to reveal the relationship between thinking in L1 and L2 writing ability. The method in the study is the think-aloud method. The results of the study showed that the students with higher scores on composition used far less L1 than the students with lower scores in terms of the total amount. At last, the study proposes that the results will serve as hypotheses to be tested in the future.
Wang Lifei and Wen Qiufang(2003)conducted the research on the effects of L1 literacy capabilities on L2 writing ability of Chinese EFL learners. Their study showed two findings. The first analysis showed that Chinese vocabulary and Chinese writing were found to have direct as well as indirect effects on English writings. The second finding indicates L2 literacy level constrained the relationship between L1 literacy variables and L2 writing ability. For the high ability learners, Chinese writing shows direct effects on English writing, while Chinese vocabulary displayed indirect effects. Wang Lifei and Wen Qiufang(2003)classifies three main reasons for the L1 literacy transfer in the L2 writing. The first reason is the knowledge and strategies employed in the L1 writing are directly reflected in the L2 writing. The second reason is the writing process in the L2 composition is largely similar with the L1. The third reason is that it is inevitable to use the mother tongue in the L2 writing. Their study comes to the conclusion that L1 literacy capability could inevitably influence the writing ability of the L2 writing. Their research on the transfer guided the other researchers to make good use of mother tongue in the English teaching．#p#分页标题#e#
2.3 Research Questions
The research of this paper focuses on the affection of the negative transfer of Chinese on college students’ English writings. The language transfer theory and related theories are mainly described. The nature, the classification and performance of the theories are all discussed. In order to summarize the real affection of the negative transfer on students’ English writings and analyze the actual reasons, certain investigations are carried out and the error analysis theory and contrastive analysis theory are used during the studying process. At last, the solutions can be explored under these researches.
Based on the above-mentioned framework, the following questions are designed to guide this study:
1. What are the common types of errors caused by negative transfer in college students’ English writings?
2. What are the reasons for errors caused by negative transfer?
3. What kinds of measures can we take to avoid the negative transfer?
The assumptions of the study are as follows.
1. College students’ English writings are unconsciously influenced by the negative transfer of Chinese;
2. A certain amount of the errors in their writings are caused by this negative transfer.
2.4 Research Methods
2.4.1 Research Objectives
The research purpose of this paper is to find the errors that college students often make, analyze the errors in terms of phonology, lexicon, syntax and discourse caused by the MT transfer. The research is based on the guidance of the language transfer theory. Through the study, the reasons for the errors can be found out and the researchers also try to find out the feasible teaching strategies in practice to overcome the influence caused by the negative transfer of the MT. Moreover, the improvement of the students’ ability in English writing could also lead to the efficiency of foreign language teaching. Eventually, application of practical English and capability of English comprehension are effectively enhanced.
2.4.2 Research Participants
120 sophomores are selected as the research participants who are non-English majors from Huaide College of Changzhou University. When choosing the study participants, the following aspects are considered. First, the number of the participants is considered. In order to ensure the samples are enough, the students of four classes are chosen. Second, the participants are ensured in the same English level. The students, who major in International Trade and Business or Marketing have the same learning experience in English learning. In other words, the study result of the investigation from those students can reflect the overall situation effectively. Therefore, the research participants selected can surely meet the rationality and representation. #p#分页标题#e#
2.4.3 Research Design
Two instruments are designed as data collection methods of the research. For one thing, the sample writings collected from the research participants will be studied at different levels of phonology, lexicon, syntax and discourse. All the participants are asked to write a composition of about 120 words in 30 minutes. The purpose of the writing is not informed beforehand in order to avoid preventing the participants from free writing. Because the researcher knows that the free writing can best reflect the subjects’ writing competence. Also, the thesis of the composition can be chosen freely from the followings.
The first is Wealth and Health
The second is a (n) ___ That Impresses Me the Most.
The third is an application letter. Suppose that you have just seen in the newspaper an advertisement about offering a job in a certain company. You are quite interested in the job and you think you are the qualified person for it. Then you write a letter to the company to apply for the job.
Each participant can freely select one of these three topics in different forms. Therefore, they could write on whatever they were interested in. The effective rate of the research samples in the terms of content and the judgment of a certain number of words is supposed to reach to 95%. Thus, make it sure that sufficient data and materials can be gained from these samples.
For another, a follow-up questionnaire is give to all the participants after the collection of sample writings. The questionnaire including ten questions is designed to investigate the learning background and writing strategies of the participants. The research participants are required to finish the questionnaire independently not later than ten minutes. The research results are analyzed simply after the students finish the questionnaire.
2.4.4 Data Collection Techniques
Generally speaking, a qualitative study is employed to deal with numbers of errors appearing in students’ sample writings, analyzing the causes of different errors and discussing the phenomenon of Chinese interference in English writing. The process of data collection involves three steps. The first step is collecting the typical errors in those samples. The second step is classifying the errors to see which are caused by negative transfer of the MT. The author finally presented them in tables for description and explanation.
The study of transfer depend largely on the systematic comparisons of languages provided by Contrastive Analysis, which explains transfer phenomenon instead of predicting when transfer will occur (Wardhaugh, 1970). The errors in each sample writing are identified and categorized in groups based on James’ classification of errors (2001). The occurrence by which each type of error occurred in the sample writings is counted and the percentage of students who make each type of error is calculated as well. #p#分页标题#e#
2.5 Anticipated Conclusions
From the data collection and analysis from the questionnaire and writing test, the results are expected to be concluded as follows.
First, In the process of their English writing, Chinese college students depend too much on their native language. Most of them think in Chinese while write in English. Most of the students are used to listing the framework and the key points in Chinese and then translate word by word. Consequently, a large amount of Chinglish expressions are produced.
Second, the errors from the English writing samples are analyzed and the errors caused by negative transfer are summarized. Most of errors are caused by the influence of their MT. The main errors in students' English writings occur at the levels of lexicon, syntax, discourse and thought patterns, including the misuse of words, unidiomatic expressions and non-native organizations of discourse. There are many grammatical errors and many words are not used appropriately and some expressions, are not idiomatic.
Third, the difference between English and Chinese is not understood by the students. For example, paragraphs in Chinese are stated in the spiral pattern while paragraphs in English being in the linear pattern. However, Chinese students are seldom aware of this difference. They often arrange their thoughts in a quite different way from that of the native English speakers. Consequently, many of the grammatical errors occur because of their organizing English sentences in the model of Chinese and many words are used without considering their connotations in English. The negative transfer of MT in L2 acquisition process is inevitable.
Based on the analysis of interference errors, we can summarize that it is clear that in the process of L2 learning, negative transfer of Chinese does exist in the learners' English learning: Of all the errors appearing in the writing samples, a majority of errors are caused by interference of Chinese. This study can help the college students achieve progress in avoiding the errors caused by the negative transfer of MT by their realizing the error source, continuous learning of the TL and meanwhile help us teachers figure out some improved methods in English teaching process.